First-trimester miscarriage is a common event. All women with clinically recognized pregnancies have approximately a 15% chance of spontaneous pregnancy loss in the first 3 months of pregnancy (Evans and Beischer, 1970). The risk is lower for younger women and higher for older mothers. Because women can present with symptoms of spontaneous miscarriage even before they are aware of pregnancy, all family physicians should be well versed in its assessment and management.
There are many causes of spontaneous pregnancy loss in the first trimester; sporadic chromosomal aneuploidy accounts for about 60%. The remaining 40% have various etiologies, including chronic maternal illness (e.g., diabetes, connective tissue disorder), uterine structural malformations, certain infections, inadequate progesterone production, and possibly other, less-well-understood causes such as immunologic "rejection" and environmental factors.
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Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...