Treatment

Smoking cessation is essential, and pulmonary rehabilitation may improve quality of life and functional capacity for patients with any ILD. Pharmacologic options include single-agent or combination corticosteroid therapy and immunomodulating or antifibrotic agents (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, colchicine, D-penicillamine). Overall, these therapies have shown marginal to no benefit in cases

Figure 18-11 Computed tomographic scan of a patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, whereas patients with other ILDs may have a better response (Davies et al., 2003). A meta-analysis of 390 patients with pulmonary fibrosis did find that interferon gamma-1b therapy significantly reduced mortality (Bajwa et al., 2005). Causes of death identified for pulmonary fibrosis in one study included respiratory failure (39%), cardiovascular disease (27%), lung cancer (10%), pulmonary infection or emboli (6%) (Panos, 1990).

Unilateral lung transplantation may enhance survival and functioning in patients with advanced interstitial fibrosis with chronic respiratory failure, whereas pulmonary fibro-sis with pulmonary hypertension may require bilateral lung transplantation (Alalawi et al., 2005). One-year survival after lung transplantation is 75%, with 44% of patients surviving 5 years or longer (Trulock, 2001).

The Smoker's Sanctuary

The Smoker's Sanctuary

Save Your Lungs And Never Have To Spend A Single Cent Of Ciggies Ever Again. According to a recent report from the U.S. government. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than twenty percent of male and female adults in the U.S. smoke cigarettes, while more than eighty percent of them light up a cigarette daily.

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