Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevention

Obesity and overweight are important risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle modifications, including diet, have been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2. Diets that result in long-term weight loss of 5% to 7%, along with exercise of moderate intensity for at least 150 minutes per week (30 minutes for 5 days per week), reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes (Knowles et al., 2002).

Treatment

Obesity tends to increase insulin resistance, so weight loss is an important tool in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes (see Chapter 36). Dietary recommendations for type 2 patients are similar to those for type 1 patients. It is important to emphasize the importance of other lifestyle changes, such as increasing activity by these patients.

In patients with insulin resistance, reduced calorie intake and modest weight loss can improve insulin resistance and blood glucose levels in the short term. Structured programs for making lifestyle modifications (e.g., increased physical activity, <30% of calories from fat, regular participant contact) can result in weight loss of 5% to 7% (ADA, 2002).

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