Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

According to BRFSS, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mel-litus (T2DM) increased from 4.9% in 1990 to 7.9% in 2000 (Mokdad et al., 2003). This change has been clearly linked to the increase in obesity. The risk of T2DM is lowest below a BMI of 22 to 23 kg/m2. At a BMI of 31, the risk for women in the NHS was 40-fold greater than in women with a BMI less than 22 (Colditz et al., 1995). For men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the risk of T2DM above a BMI of 35 kg/m2 was increased 60-fold. Up to 80% of cases of T2DM can be attributed to overweight and obesity. There appears to be a time delay of about 10 years between the development of overweight and onset of the diabetes (Bray, 2003). As weight increases, insulin resistance and compensatory insulin secretion also increase. At some point, the body's ability to secrete insulin does not meet requirements, and blood glucose rises. Weight loss is recommended to lower elevated glucose levels in overweight and obese persons with T2DM.

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