Urinary Tract Disorders

Charles Carter, James Stallworth, and Robert Holleman

Chapter contents

Evaluation of the Urinary Tract

899

Enuresis

914

Physical Examination

899

Dysfunctional Voiding

914

Laboratory Tests

900

Erectile Disorders

914

Imaging Studies

903

Incontinence

915

Common Urinary Tract Concerns

903

Interstitial Cystitis

917

Anatomic Disorders

909

Overactive Bladder

917

Fetal Hydronephrosis

910

Renal Calculi

918

Infectious Disorders

918

Hydrocele

910

Balanitis

Hypospadias

910

919

Labial Adhesions

910

Epididymitis

919

Peyronie's Disease

911

Prostatitis

919

Phimosis and Paraphimosis

911

Sexually Transmitted Infections

919

Spermatoceles

911

Urinary Tract Infections

921

Testicular Disorders

911

Neoplastic Disorders

923

Functional Disorders

912

Benign Neoplasia: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

924

Chronic Kidney Disease

912

Malignant Neoplasias

924

Chronic Nonbacterial Prostatitis

913

Urogenital health care concerns account for 4.4% of all ambulatory patient visits in the United States, more than half with primary care physicians (Schappert and Rechtsteiner, 2008). Disease in the urogenital system can be categorized as anatomic, functional, infectious, and neoplastic disorders. Although there is inevitable overlap between these categories, as in benign prostatic hyperplasia (neoplastic) causing outflow obstruction and incontinence (functional), this framework is useful for characterizing urinary tract abnormalities.

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