Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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Figure 91 Site features for fire prevention and fighting

Once all available fuel sources have been used, the fire will burn out. Unfortunately, this is not necessarily the end of the fire. Barns and agricultural buildings often contain large quantities of fuel sources that can be impervious to water (e.g., hay, petroleum fuels, and fertilizers). It is common for some of these fuel sources to remain unburned during the initial fire, then continue to smolder. These smoldering pockets often reignite or rekindle another fire, requiring another visit from the fire department.

Free Range Versus Organic

We hear the terms all the time, organic and free range. Here's exactly what they mean. Organic is a labeling term that means the product meets the requirements of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990. To be certified as organic, the poultry and or meat must be fed certified organic feed since birth. Organic feed means grains and soybeans grown in soil that has been free of pesticides and chemical fertilizers for

Endogenous Growth Theory

According to Paul Romer's 'economics of ideas' version of endogenous growth theory, new ideas embedded in technological change and innovation are the main factor of economic growth and the unbounded amount of potential new ideas is a main reason why growth after the industrial revolution has been constant and may continue to be so in the future. To illustrate this proposal, the 'factory' metaphor used traditionally in neoclassical growth theory is replaced by a 'computer' metaphor. Take for example, growth in agricultural output. Viewed through the 'factory' metaphor, this growth could come from an increase in 'raw materials' (arable land) and in 'equipment' (agricultural equipment, fertilizers). However, viewed through the 'computer' metaphor, this growth could come from new 'software' (methods of farming and farm management and methods to produce better equipment and fertilizers) rather than from an increase in amount of 'hardware' (arable land, agricultural equipment, and...

Prevention and Treatment

The factors contributing to the problem of acute diarrhea are well known. However, their modification will not be easy because of cost and required changes in behavior. The important variables that will require attention include the following availability of plentiful potable water adequate systems of sewage removal improved personal and food hygiene improved nutrition through food supplementation programs discontinuance of the practice of using night soil as fertilizer promotion of breast feeding effective measles vaccine programs availability of adequate health care to administer oral rehydration therapy and selected antimicrobial therapy family planning insect control vaccine development and implementation for certain enteric infections such as cholera, enterotoxigenic E. coli diarrhea, rotavirus gastroenteritis, shigellosis, and typhoid fever. Because achieving all of these activities will initially be too costly in developing areas, research in developed countries will be...

Less Developed Countries

It might be argued that the most effective way to counter global food shortages and poverty is not to encourage people to grow their own food, but to put their effort into farming for cash crops. This approach, already widely practiced, could favor widespread adoption of GM, because it depends on a limited number of high-yielding crops with defined management regimes. But critics of the approach argue that several problems may arise with this strategy, depending as it does on substantial inputs of expensive fertilizers or pesticides to give marketable yields and its reliance on larger, less labor-intensive farms. The widespread cultivation of cash crops may also lead to a rapid loss of local and indigenous knowledge about food crops, often built up over many generations and transmitted only orally once lost, this knowledge might be irrecoverable.

History of Public Health and Sanitation in the West before 1700

Nonetheless, despite the foregoing, which seems an idealistic portrayal of health practices in antiquity, the stark reality is that 25 years was the average life expectation for most Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, and others in the vast ancient Greco-Roman Empire. Roman elites recognized the importance of effective disposal of human wastes and so constructed miles of sewers and cloacae, as well as public and private latrines, and collected the waste for use as fertilizer in rural areas (Scarborough 1981). However, an enormous gulf separated the privileged and the poor. The hovels and lean-to shacks of the destitute, home-lessness, and severe crowding (all of which mimic life in modern Western and Third World slums) dominated Roman life (Scobie 1986). The ideals promoted by the wealthiest citizens apparently had little impact on the public's health. De facto, the drainage systems installed in individual homes were seldom connected to street drains and sewers, as archeology at Pompeii has...

Four Human Ecological Concepts And The Analysis Of Migration

A useful measure of technological inputs into the first type, i.e., land-intensive production, is tons of fertilizer applied per acre farmed. In the case of large-scale, commercial agriculture, an important indicator of applied technology is expenditures on machinery per acre. In regard to both of these ''application-specific'' technology measures, the argument suggests a positive relationship with migration.

Manure Disposal Direct Disposal

Lastwagen Malvorlage

Field application is based on fertilizer needs of the crop or pasture grass through soil sampling (Fig. 8.19). The approximate fertilizer value of Figure 8.19. Proper application with a tractor and spreader provides a thin layer of stable waste over the soil to improve manure drying and fertilizer application along with decreased fly breeding. Adapted from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54. Figure 8.19. Proper application with a tractor and spreader provides a thin layer of stable waste over the soil to improve manure drying and fertilizer application along with decreased fly breeding. Adapted from On-Farm Composting Handbook, NRAES-54. manure from bedded horse stalls (46 dry matter) is 4 pounds per ton ammonium-N, 14 pounds per ton total N, 4 pounds per ton P2O5 (phosphate), and 14 pounds per ton K O (potash). Fertilizer value of manure at 20 moisture without bedding is approximately 12-5-9 pounds per ton (N Oj- O). Horse manure nutrient values surveyed from published literature...

Figure 81 Daily manure and stall waste production from a typical 1000pound horse

Substantial amounts of manure can accumulate where horses congregate around gates, water-ers, favorite shade areas, feeders, and shelters. These areas should be cleaned weekly for better pasture management and parasite control and to diminish fly breeding. Manure collected from paddocks and pastures may be added to the stall waste stockpile. Horse manure has been considered a valuable resource rather than a waste. Fertilizer value of 8V2 tons of manure produced annually by a 1000-pound horse is about 102 pounds of nitrogen, 43 pounds of P2O5 (phosphorus pentoxide These values are an average for horse manure (urine and feces). With the large amount of bedding material mixed with manure in typical stall waste, the fertilizer nutrient value would vary. A summary of published nutrient values is presented in Table 8.5 in the Direct Disposal section.

146 Trichuriasis

Trichuriasis rarely causes much harm unless there is a heavy worm load. Severe infections can cause abdominal discomfort, bloody or mucoid diarrhea, weight loss, weakness, and anemia. Masses of worms can cause appendicitis, and prolapse of the rectum can occur in children harboring large numbers of worms. Symptoms, including anemia, tend to be more severe in children. Diagnosis of trichuriasis is by discovery of eggs in the feces. Drug treatment is effective. Prevention of whipworm infection, like prevention of ascariasis, which often coexists with trichuriasis, is by improved sanitation, personal hygiene, and composting of night soil before it is used for fertilizer.

Population and Disease

In addition, parasitic diseases probably killed millions of peasants because the use of human feces as fertilizer was a universal practice for centuries. Flooded rice fields were also breeding grounds of mosquitoes the carriers of malaria and other infections. In addition to malnutrition and agricultural practices, poor hygienic conditions, especially in some of the southern provinces and frontier regions, must also have been an important factor in encouraging insect-borne diseases like malaria and plague. Other important factors that could account for high morbidity rates, especially in urban centers in the late Ming period, were the absence of sewage and water control, and the inflow of masses of vagrants

Etiology and Epidemiology

Personal and food hygiene standards in a population are important to enteric infectious disease occurrence. Effective handwashing as a routine practice is practically unheard of in many areas of the developing world. Food all too often is improperly handled. Vegetables and fruits rarely are washed properly when reaching the house prior to preparation, despite the fact that they may have been exposed to human excreta used as fertilizer. Foods may be contaminated by unclean kitchen surfaces or hands. One of the most important errors in food hygiene is the storage of foods containing moisture at ambient temperatures between meals, which encourages microbial replication. This problem is especially severe during the warmer months. Medical care is often inadequate so that intestinal carriage of microbial pathogens and continued dissemination of the agents continue. Finally, underlying medical conditions can contribute both to the occurrence of diarrhea and to the severity of the resultant...

Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis Treatment and Control

Diagnosis is made by detecting eggs in microscopic examination of the feces. Drug treatment is usually safe and effective, but care must be taken to keep the adult worms from wandering about in response to therapy. Intestinal obstruction is treated by inducing vomiting or by surgery. Preventive measures include sanitary latrines, composting feces to be used as fertilizer, and careful washing of fruits and vegetables that are eaten raw. Mass treatment may also reduce the danger of continued reinfection.


The giant intestinal roundworm, Ascaris lum-bricoides, is a common parasite with worldwide distribution. Adult worms are 15-35 cm (6-14 inches) long and reside in the lumen of the small intestine. Sometimes, however, they are passed in the feces and, if vomited into the oral cavity, may exit from the host's mouth or nostrils thus they have been known to medical observers for millennia. Female worms produce up to 200,000 fertilized eggs daily, which are passed in the feces. Eggs incubate in soil for at least 2-3 weeks to produce an infective larval stage within them. The eggs are resistant to chemicals, desiccation, and extreme temperatures but mature or em-bryonate most rapidly in warm, moist, shady conditions in clay soils. People become infected by eating embryonated eggs in contaminated food or water or, in the case of toddlers, infection occurs by direct ingestion of eggs with dirt. Poor rural sanitation and the use of human feces for fertilizer obviously favor transmission....

Contract Disposal

A less formal contract disposal is to interest neighbors in free garden organic material. The key is to locate the organic fertilizer enthusiasts. Owners of small stables have had success with newspaper ads and locating free bagged manure at curbside. Empty feed sacks filled with horse manure are a useful package for manure distribution.

Other Stable Wastes

Waste management is not confined to horse stall waste at a large facility. Keep trash separate from manure and soiled bedding for disposal. Recyclable materials are also kept separate for collection. Medical waste (e.g., syringes) usually has special disposal requirements. Fertilizers and pesticides and their containers sometimes have disposal restrictions. Human waste from a bathroom requires a septic system or connection to municipal sewer. Gray water, such as shower and sink water, may also go to the septic or sewer unless it is needed for groundskeeping or other uses where high-quality water is not necessary. A grassed filter area may be used to treat wastewater from the stable's horse wash stalls, tack area, laundry, showers, and feed room.

Survey the Scene

Heroism will only jeopardize lives and the structure. Look and see what the fire is near. A smoldering pile of hay is not nearly as deadly as one smoldering near bags of fertilizer. Take a quick inventory of available resources. Are there other people present Use their skills in the most efficient manner possible. Remember that because of their behavior patterns, horses are the most difficult domestic livestock species to evacuate from a burning barn. Always send the most qualified person to do the task. Persons who are not qualified to do the task are more of a liability than assistance. A person who is unfamiliar with operating a fire extinguisher may spread the fire. Someone unfamiliar with the behavior of a panicked horse puts others, himself or herself, and the horse in greater danger. If the area is unsafe to enter, do not put yourself or anyone else at risk. Be alert for potential hidden dangers. Firefighters cannot concentrate on saving the horses until they have rescued the...


Copper is an essential trace element, being involved in the function of certain enzymes, such as cytochrome C oxidase, amino acid oxidase, superoxide dismutase and monoamine oxidase. Because of the heat and electrical conductivity of copper, as well as its resistance to corrosion, ductility, and malleability, it has many industrial applications and is widely used in electrical wiring, switches, electroplating, plumbing pipes, coins, metal alloys, and fireworks. Copper sulphate is used as a fungicide, an algaecide, and in some fertilizers.

Use of pesticides

The main use of pesticides is in agriculture and this gives the opportunity for exposure of consumers via food and importantly of farmers and farm workers. Nearly 50 of the world labour force is employed in agriculture (Lichfield, 2005) and during the past five decades there has been a massive increase in utilization of pesticides and fertilizers to enhance crop protection and production, food quality, and food preservation. Pesticides are also employed for public health purposes and for domestic use. The role of insecticides in the control of vector-borne diseases should not be underestimated. Malaria, the best-known vector-borne disease, affects more than 500 million people in 90 countries causing 1.1-2.7 million deaths a year, mostly among children under 5 years ofage (UN Millennium Project 2005). Diarrhoeal diseases (vectors being the common house fly) account for 17 of deaths among children under 5 years worldwide or nearly two million deaths per year (UNICEF 2007). Other...

Byproduct Compost

Farm Composting Handbook

Microbes that decompose the bedding and manure occur naturally in stall waste. in fact, commercial composters and mushroom substrate preparation facilities often seek straw-bedded horse stall waste. composting provides a material that is more readily marketable than raw stall waste. Finished compost is partially degraded manure and is more organically stable, presenting less of a pollution threat. its finer texture, high organic matter content, and fertilizer value make it desirable as a garden soil amendment. composting reduces the volume of waste by 40 to 70 . Horse manure, with its associated bedding, is almost perfectly suited for composting because it has appropriate levels of nitrogenous material and carbon-based bedding material. (The carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of stall waste is 20 1 to 30 1.) Stables have successfully given away, or even sold, bulk and bagged horse compost. Golf courses and nurseries provide an outlet for truckloads of compost.

Water Supply

As in most nineteenth-century cities, the streets of Seoul were filthy, dirty lanes flanked by ditches that drained house privies and sewage. Refuse was poured into the ditches with the hope that it would eventually disappear into the river. Wells were dug conveniently close to major city lanes, which unfortunately meant inevitable contamination with sewage from the nearby ditches and, thus, intestinal diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. The situation was similar in small towns and rural communities using water from wells, springs, creeks, and rivers. Both produce and water were generally contaminated because of the use of night soil as fertilizer.

Vnii3 Ascariasis

The giant intestinal roundworm, Ascaris lumbri-coides, is a very common parasite with a worldwide distribution. The adult worms are 15 to 35 cm (6 to 14 inches) long and reside in the lumen of the small intestine. Sometimes, however, they are passed in the feces and, if vomited into the oral cavity, may exit from the host's mouth or nostrils thus they have been known to medical observers for millennia. Female worms produce up to 200,000 fertilized eggs daily, which are passed in the feces. Eggs incubate in the soil for at least 2 to 3 weeks to produce an infective larval stage within them. The eggs are very resistant to chemicals, desiccation, and extreme temperatures, but they mature or em-bryonate most rapidly in warm, moist, shady conditions in clay soils. People become infected by eating embryonated eggs in food or water contaminated with feces or, in the case of toddlers, infection occurs by direct ingestion of eggs with dirt. Poor rural sanitation and the use of human feces for...


Infection is by the fecal-oral route. Direct infection can take place in circumstances of extreme crowding among children, as well as inmates of institutions for the mentally retarded and insane, and among male homosexuals. Indirect spread, however, by fecal contamination of food and water, is more common. Water-borne epidemics of amebic dysentery are not so frequent as those of bacillary dysentery, but the former do occur when sewage contaminates wells or water pipes. Fruits and vegetables can become covered with cysts when human feces are used as fertilizer, or when fruits are washed in contaminated water or are handled by a symptomatic or asymptomatic carrier. Flies and cockroaches can mechanically transmit cysts from feces to food. The disease thus flourishes in poor sanitary conditions but is rare where good personal hygiene is practiced and where water and sewer systems function properly. Dogs, cats, and monkeys can be infected in the laboratory, but there is no evidence that...

Disease Patterns

The foregoing sketch suggests a distinctive ecological disease pattern for the Middle East and North Africa. Pastoralism and the farmers' reliance on animals for transport, power, fertilizer, and dung fuel have made these occupational groups, living in close proximity to their livestock, vulnerable to zoonoses and to insect-borne diseases, some of which infest domestic or wild animals. Another important disease complex has developed out of the necessity for irrigation the widespread incidence of parasitism due to favorable conditions for proliferation of the insect carrier and an intermediate host where required. At an agricultural conference in 1944, it was reported that expanding irrigation in one area of Egypt had raised the incidence of both malaria and schistosomiasis from 5 to 45 or even 75 percent of the population in that area (Fisher 1971). This survey, therefore, will begin with those ailments most closely related to the rural environment arthropod-borne diseases and...


Selenium functions as an antioxidant alone in the detoxification of heavy metals in the body and as a cofactor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione per-oxidase. Dietary selenium deficiency increases tissue oxidative damage and it seems that selenium has a sparing effect on tissue levels of vitamin E. However in experimental studies selenium deficiency does not impair endurance capacity in rats and supplementation in humans has no effect on physical performance 82 . Selenium has also been shown to be important for the immune system. This is of special concern in the Scandinavian countries, which have selenium-poor soils, and has led to specific programs to add selenium to fertilizers in Finland in order to increase the dietary intake of selenium. In this context it is of interest that it has been shown that selenium status in Swedish athletes is subnormal and lower than in Finnish athletes