Natural Remedies for Food Cravings
Dysfunction of the BBB may be in the form of increased permeability or BBB breakdown to large and small molecules in brain diseases and or may take the form of alterations in endothelial transport mechanisms. Well documented in the literature is the increased BBB permeability to plasma proteins, which occurs in conditions associated with vasogenic edema such as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, infections, inflammation, seizures, trauma, tumors, epilepsy, and hypertensive encephalopathy (182, 183). Increased permeability to C14 sucrose implying increased ionic permeability has been reported in peripheral inflammatory pain (184). Increased BBB permeability to ions and plasma proteins has been reported in human and experimental diabetes (184, 185). Global vascular changes and altered expression of Pg-p have been implicated in the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (186, 187) and Parkinson's disease (188) as reviewed previously (136, 189).
There are some exceptions to the no sugar rule. For example, fruits and fruit juices contain fructose (a natural simple sugar) and provide several vitamins and minerals. Eating fresh fruit or drinking 100-percent fruit juice is far from pumping empty calories into your system. When you can, choose whole fruit over fruit juice ou get the same nutrients, as well as more complex carbohydrates and fiber. ou'll read more about this in Chapter 6. As you can see in the following table, juice and cola both contain simple sugars, but juice provides a lot more nutrition. As you can see in the following table, juice and cola both contain simple sugars, but juice provides a lot more nutrition.
People often have to use artificial sweeteners because of a medical condition. For example, sugar substitutes can be great for diabetics, who can't tolerate real sugar because their bodies can't produce the hormone insulin. Insulin delivers the sugar from our blood to our cells, where we utilize it as energy. When your body doesn't have enough insulin, sugar builds up in the blood and doesn't get into the cells. This condition is known as high blood-sugar and can be extremely dangerous for people with diabetes. Because sugar substitutes do not contain any glucose (and therefore do not require insulin), they can be effective sweeteners for people with diabetes.
A number of nutrient molecules are transferred across the BBB by ''facilitated diffusion.'' The transported molecules cross the plasma membranes by interacting with intramembrane transporter proteins related to water-filled channels. The two systems with the highest capacity are that for d-glucose and certain other sugars (the gene product Glut 1) and that for large neutral amino acids, the so-called l-system. The first has been sequenced for a number of mammalian species, the preferred structure of the sugar substrate understood, and models for sugar translocation across the membrane discussed (12). The high maximum transport capacity at the blood-brain barrier, 4 jmol
To date three serine proteases, namely MASP-1, MASP-2 and MASP-3 (Matsushita and Fujita, 1992 Thiel et al., 1997 Dahl et al, 2001) and a non-enzymatic component, MAp19 (Stover et al., 1999) were found to be associated with MBL. In a recent study it has been demonstrated that in serum, MASP-2 is entirely complexed with either MBL or ficolins (M0ller-Kristensen et al., 2003), whereas MASP-1 circulates in both bound in unbound forms (Terai et al., 1997). Investigating MBL MASPs complexes, in sucrose gradient experiments MASP-1 and MAp19 were found to be associated with smaller MBL oligomers, whereas MASP-2 and MASP-3 were in the same fraction with larger MBL oligomers (Dahl et al., 2001).
Sucrose and mannitol, are useful for evaluating changes in barrier permeability to nonelectrolytes. Steady-state concentrations of Polar molecules with low-permeability properties have also been tested for penetrability across in situ and in vitro preparations of CP. A classical experiment (120) analyzed permeation rates of several nonelectrolytes of graded molecular weights, diffusing from isolated CP (bathed in CSF containing the test molecules) to venous blood draining the plexus preparation this enabled calculation of BCSFB permeability coefficients, P, cm s, for urea, mannitol, sucrose, and inulin (120). More recently, Strazielle et al. (98) used primary cultures of rat CP as a transwell monolayer system to quantify fluxes of extracellular markers that penetrate tight junctions vs. drugs that permeate CP epithelial cells. Their determination of P values for hydrophilic nonelectro-lyte penetration across the rat monolayer compares favorably with previous P values for in vitro...
The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. The chemical digestion of food (i.e., carbohydrates to simple sugars fats to fatty acids and glycerol proteins to amino acids) primarily occurs in the duodenum because of the secretion of pancreatic enzymes. The remainder of the small intestine (i.e., jejunum and ileum) primarily functions in absorption of these nutrients into the blood stream.
The value of certain carbohydrates is limited by the animal's ability to digest them. Digestion of disaccharides such as sucrose and lactose is controlled by the activity of the intestinal enzymes, i.e. disaccharidases sucrase and lactase. The activity of lactase decreases with age and so an excessive consumption of lactose-containing products in older animals can lead to diarrhoea.
The monocarboxylic acid transporters at the BBB transport lactate and pyruvate, short chain monocarboxylic acids such as acetate, and ketone bodies such as y-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, which are essential for brain metabolism (4). Some types of acidic drug bearing a monocarboxylic acid moiety can cross the BBB via the monocarboxylic acid transport system(s). Use of the in vivo carotid artery injection technique and in vitro primary-cultured bovine BCECs disclosed a significant competitive inhibitory effect of salicylic acid and valproic acid on the transport of 3H acetic acid, whereas di- and tricarboxylic acids, amino acids, and choline were not inhibitory (36, 37). Pharmacologically active forms of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors such as lipophilic 14C simvastatin acid (the most lipophilic derivative), lovastatin acid, and hydrophilic pravastatin, all of which contain a carboxylic acid moiety, are transported by proton monocar-boxylate...
Several studies have been done on AME of neuropharmaceutical pep-tides, which have the characteristics of stability to enzymes and cationic charge as a consequence of suitable chemical modifications of the native peptides. Ebiratide a synthetic peptide analogous to adrenocorticotropic hormone that is used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is positively charged with an isoelectric point of 10, and its resistance to metabolism has been enhanced by chemical modifications of the constituent natural amino acids. The internalization of 125I ebiratide was saturable in primary cultures of bovine BCECs. Furthermore, the characteristics of its internalization were consistent with AME in various respects, including energy dependence and the inhibitory effects of polycationic peptides and endocytosis inhibitors (7, 61, 67). To prove the transcytosis of ebiratide across the BBB, a capillary depletion study and brain microdialysis study were performed (68). After infusion of 125I ebiratide or 14C...
The response of bovine IgG (isoform not specified) to temperature and chemical denaturants, urea and GdmCl, has been reported (Ye et al, 2005). Thermal denaturation and thermal denaturation in the presence of denaturants was irreversible, producing, via a series of steps, an incompletely unfolded aggregate. Isothermal chemical denaturation produced, also by a series of steps, a completely unfolded random coil state (Ye et al. , 2005). The response of IgG to high pressure (200-700 MPa) in the presence of the kosmotrope sucrose has also been reported (Zhang et al, 1998).
You've spent all this time clearing your lungs of mounds of mucus. Now you need to practice avoiding sugary foods or dairy products that often gunk them up again. Even something as simple as drinking too much fruit juice translates into ingesting sugar (fructose). Try supplementing with vitamin C, which cuts the mucus without the sugar, and coenzyme Q10, which helps get rid of toxins. Black radish, mullein, chick-weed, fenugreek, and gingko biloba are used to further clean mucus from your lungs. Consult an herbalist if you have any questions. He or she can guide you in your choices or create a custom prescription for your particular needs.
A study on the response of IgG to high pressure (200-700 MPa) in the presence of the kosmotrope sucrose has been reported (Zhang et al., 1998). Recently, Brisson et al. (2007) studied the effects of iron saturation on the thermal aggregation of LF at neutral pH and found that iron saturation markedly increased the thermal stability of LF and decreased aggregation. A similar observation was made by Palmano et al. (2006) for pressure-treated iron-saturated LF solutions.
Reversed-phase systems with nonpolar bonded C8 and C18 silica are used in the separation of sugars. A mixture of 200 mg of fructose and sucrose were completely separated in the 3 1 acetonitrile water mobile phase incorporating a silylamine bonded phase with silica in less than 1 h.
Spectrometry (Py MS) technique such as the Curie point system offers considerable advantages rapid analysis, automation of the system, and direct chemical information. Laser microprobe mass analysis (LAMMA) on milligram amount of sample has been reported. An alternative approach is the detection of very small (picogram) amounts of organic matter by direct ionization due to laser irradiation. Thus, digitonin (MW 1228) and sucrose (MW 342) were readily detected.
Diet is incredibly important in treating persistent pediatric diarrhea. Food allergies such as wheat gluten, sugar malabsorption, or deficient pancreatic enzymes are the most common causes of this condition. Try cutting out wheat products for several weeks. (And check your labels wheat is in everything ) Next, give sugary foods and juices some time off. Children often become addicted to sugar, so this may not be easy, but their improved health will strengthen your resolve.
Defining addiction as a disease relieves addicts of the overwhelming shame and responsibility for having caused the addiction and its devastating consequences. At the same time, it empowers the client to take corrective action. Refuting the discouraging idea that addiction is a moral failure allows clients to focus on getting better by accepting the hard truth Abstinence is their solution. Just as lung cancer patients are expected to stop smoking and diabetics to avoid sugar, addicts must altogether avoid ingesting alcohol and other psychoactive drugs as part of their recovery.
For example, we did experiments measuring binding in sequential fractions prepared from isolated adult rat myocytes (unpublished data, 1989). Myocytes were lysed in a high-sucrose buffer, and no material was discarded. The 1000g pellet contained approx 65 of the absolute total number of specific a1-AR binding sites measured by 3H-prazosin. A 40,000g pellet made from the 1000g supernatant contained about 15 of the binding sites, and a 100,000g pellet from the 40,000g supernatant contained the remaining 20 of a1-ARs. Thus, a minority of the receptors (15 of total) was in the 40,000g membrane pellet used most
A common medical maxim describes a typical patient with gallstones as fat, fair, female, and forty. Obesity is associated with increased cholesterol secretion, producing a supersaturated or lithogenic bile. Overconsumption of calories, particularly through refined sugar and flour, appears to be the major factor accounting for the high incidence in Western countries (Heaton 1973). It also explains the increasing prevalence of cholesterol and mixed gallstones among Japanese, Eskimo, and certain African populations adopting a more Western diet. A diet high in cholesterol-rich foods may have a secondary role.
Tryptophan residues are relatively stable during processing and storage. They are not easily oxidized and have been found to be relatively resistant to oxidizing lipids, alkali, quinones and reducing sugars (Nielsen et al, 1985). Any losses are small and not significant when compared with losses of other amino acids such as methionine and lysine. However, we have seen small amounts of oxidized tryptophan residues in digests of trim milk purchased from the supermarket (Figure 10.6).
Bladder, it is induced by swelling in the walls, stretching or spasm of the muscle wall of the organ or traction on the ligaments holding the organ up. For ligaments, stretching or inflammation of neighbouring joint linings can cause pain, but, strangely, cutting a ligament does not. Stretching a blood vessel or compressing a nerve may also trigger pain. For muscles, pain is caused by being starved of oxygen, death of muscle fibres (as happens in some diseases), swelling of the muscle and prolonged contraction. Most of us have experienced this last cause of muscle pain when running a long way or holding heavy things for a long time. It happens because muscles can create energy from sugar in two ways. The standard way is with oxygen, but if oxygen is in short supply, or if the exercise load is so heavy that a little extra energy is needed, muscles can switch to anaerobic metabolism a process similar to that yeast uses for fermentation. Human muscle, rather than creating alcohol as a...
Human studies have largely been of the observational type world-wide epidemiological studies, 'before and after' studies, and studies among people with both high and low sugar consumption. Very few interventional studies on human subjects have been conducted,4'60 and are unlikely to be undertaken in the future given the difficulties of placing groups of people on rigid dietary regimes for long periods of time and because of ethical issues. The main conclusion of studies relating to sugar and dental caries has been that (1) consumption of sugar, even at high levels, is associated with only a small increase in caries increment if the sugar is taken up to four times a day and none between meals (2) consumption of sugar both between meals and at meals is associated with a marked increase in caries increment.61'62 These conclusions have shaped key dental education messages of oral health promotion campaigns relating to diet and dental health around the world and also formed the...
Similar thixotropic behavior was reported for a ternary solution consisting of micellar casein, locust bean gum (LBG) and sucrose (Schorsch et al, 1999). At pH 6.8, the casein micelles and the LBG were thermodynamically incompatible, behaving as a water-in-water emulsion. The presence of sucrose, even at high concentration (40 ), did not significantly improve the compatibility of the biopolymers (Schorsch etal., 1999).
Surface enamel is softened with acidic fluids, but this is increased where the fluid is swirled around the mouth. The patient's oral hygiene habits maybe contributing to the tooth substance loss (e.g., an overvigourous scrubbing technique or toothbrushing after acid drinks). Toothbrushing should be avoided for 1 h after consumption of acidic drinks or food, to allow the surface enamel to become remineralized. Sugar-free chewing gum has been shown to stimulate saliva for several hours, and this may have a remineralizing effect on enamel and dentin. Where attrition is the etiological agent, an occlusal splint may be necessary. This can be worn at night.
Interactions between whey proteins and other species induced by either heat treatment or pressure treatment may be divided into two separate classes covalent interactions and non-covalent interactions. The most important covalent interaction involving whey proteins upon storage is their reaction with reducing sugars via the Maillard reaction to form discolored protein powders, which also have reduced solubilities and nutritional properties. Non-covalent interactions can also occur these, too, may lead to a loss of protein solubility after association of the proteins with polysaccharides and these non-covalent interactions are primarily driven by reversible electrostatic interactions.
In an extensive study, Garrett et al. (1988) examined the thermal denaturation of the individual whey proteins P-LG and a-LA and unfractionated whey protein in the presence and absence of sucrose using UV absorption and light scattering methods. The authors found that, in the presence of sucrose, there was increased exposure of the tryptophan residues of both P-LG and whey protein after heating to 90 C. It must be noted that the whey protein results were based on soluble protein only insoluble protein that formed after heating had been removed centrifugally. The authors postulated that the hydrophobic groups in the protein's interior had paired up with sucrose after the protein had undergone a transitionary conformational change following heat treatment. In this way, aggregation of the protein was inhibited, although the sugars were reported to have promoted conformational changes. The conformational-promoting properties of sugars as reported by Garrett et al. (1988) were contrary to...
Nearly monodisperse and spherical NiS nanoparticles in the range 3-12 nm were synthesized by mixing two w o microemulsions composed of water, 1-butanol, the nonionic, biodegradable and nontoxic sucrose fatty acid monoester (S-1170), tetradecane and Ni(NO3)2 or Na2S, respectively. By centrifugation, a fine powder was obtained that was washed and dried before nanoparticle characterization. The size of NiS nanocrystals and the width of their size distribution was found to increase with the initial concentration of the reactants160.
Rationalizing the frequency and volume of blood sampling is important to reduce blood loss post-operatively. The use of pediatric blood sample tubes is recommended. Postoperative folic acid should be considered when reduced oral intake is anticipated, and folinic acid used when oral intake is not possible. Iron supplementation should be used if there is postoperative bleeding. If the patient is unable to take oral iron or if rHuEPO is being used, then intravenous iron infusions, such as iron sucrose (Venofer), can be given safely. There is some evidence that intravenous iron may be more efficacious than oral iron generally when rHuEPO is used preopera-tively33 and when used in dialysis patients34, but some centers use oral iron supplementation and only reserve intravenous iron if there is a poor response on the basis of iron studies.
The role of an immune response directed against endogenous bacteria as the initiating factor is more evident in CD, as evidenced by the apparent strong T-helper 1 activation against bacteria seen in animal models of this disease. The role of dietary antigens in the development of CD compared to UC is also another potential initiating factor. Excess ingestion of refined sugars or margarine may be higher in patients who develop CD.8
Many locations recommend no oral intake for 1 hour before the procedure to prevent aspiration. Oral sucrose can be used to reduce pain during the procedure (Gatti, 2003). A dorsal penile block or penile ring block is more effective then EMLA cream or sucrose. EMLA cream provides
The specialized microenvironment of peripheral nerve fibers is maintained with the assistance of the BNI. Regulated blood-nerve exchange across the BNI and turnover of endoneurial fluid by convective fluid flow are vital for the maintenance of endoneurial physiological parameters, including blood flow, O2 tension, pH, oncotic pressure, hydrostatic pressure, ion concentrations, within the normal range necessary for the proper functioning of nerve fibers. There are independent transendothelial pathways for the movement of ions and macromolecules. Some of these physiological parameters have been measured PS to (14C) sucrose (70, 71), (14C) glucose (49), (125I) albumin (34), and 22Na (30) endoneurial blood flow (72, 73) EHP (74, 75) and ion concentration in endoneurial fluid (58, 76). Other parameters have been described only qualitatively or not at all endoneurial concentration of H+ and Ca2+ rate of convective EFF volume of endoneurial extracellular space perineurial permeability to...
Karen was 32 years of age and suffered since high school from chronic bladder infections. She had severe PMS and a bfadder infection almost every month. She had just gotten married and her chronic cystitis was affecting her marriage, as well as work and an active sports life. We initially used acupuncture, which quickly gave her relief from the burning and urgency. After combining weekly acupuncture visits with Chinese herbs and dietary changes such as reducing sugars, caffeine, and most alcohol, Karen was able to stay off antibiotics, increase her sports activity, cut back on acupuncture visits, and have a satisfying relationship with her new husband.
Treatment of iron deficiency is not always straightforward. The goal is to remedy the hemoglobin deficit and replace iron stores. Many oral iron preparations are available, but ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate are most often used and inexpensive. The best regimen is to give 3 iron tablets daily this provides about 150 mg of elemental iron daily. If the patient is compliant and absorption normal, reticulocytosis will occur in a week and Hb level will increase at least 1 g dL within 2 weeks. Microcytosis may take up to 4 months to resolve. The iron is best taken on an empty stomach because certain foods interfere with iron absorption. However, 15 to 20 of patients will have significant gastric upset with oral iron and may not be compliant. If poor absorption or noncompliance is of concern, parenteral iron may be given. Several preparations are available, including iron sucrose and iron gluconate intravenously (IV) at 125 to 250 mg day, and have a good safety profile compared with...
An alternative approach to studying the brain suggests that neural efficiency may be related to intelligence such an approach is based on studies of how the brain metabolizes glucose (simple sugar required for brain activity) during mental activities. Richard Haier and colleagues (Haier et al., 1992) cited several other researchers who support their own findings that higher intelligence correlates with reduced levels of glucose metabolism during problem-solving tasks -that is, smarter brains consume less sugar (and hence expend less effort) than do less smart brains doing the same task. Furthermore, Haier and colleagues found that cerebral efficiency increases as a result of learning on a relatively complex task involving visu-ospatial manipulations (the computer game Tetris). As a result of practice, more intelligent participants show not only lower cerebral glucose metabolism overall but also more specifically localized metabolism of glucose. In most areas of their brains, smarter...
The Role of Brain Extracellular Fluid Production and Efflux Mechanisms in Drug Transport to the Brain
Fig. 1 Plot of CNS permeability against log Poctanol. Many solutes (open circles) show a clear correlation between their lipid solubility, determined as log Poct and CNS penetration Suc, sucrose Cre, creatinine PCNU, (1-(2-1-nitrosourea BCNU, Solutes that show an enhanced or depressed uptake at the BBB in relation to their lipid solubility are distinguished as marked outliers on this type of plot (solid circles) and either have a facilitated penetration at the BBB such as d-G1u (D-glucose) or an active efflux from the CNS as in the case of Ble (bleomycin), Adr (Adriamycin), Epi (epipodophyllotoxin etoposide), Cycl (cyclospo-rin A), and Vcr (vincristine). (Adapted from Ref. 1.) Fig. 1 Plot of CNS permeability against log Poctanol. Many solutes (open circles) show a clear correlation between their lipid solubility, determined as log Poct and CNS penetration Suc, sucrose Cre, creatinine PCNU, (1-(2-1-nitrosourea BCNU, Solutes that show an enhanced or depressed uptake at the BBB in...
Acu-Points for Better Digestion and Food Cravings Locate the stomach point on your ear, which is in the middle of the ear on the horizontal raised ridge called the crus of the helix. Squeeze the point with your finger on the point and your thumb behind for support. You may also use your fingernail, as shown in the previous figure, for greater stimulation, but be careful not to press too hard and break the skin. Squeeze the point to curb your appetite or help you resist a food craving. Squeeze for one to two minutes, breathing deeply. Repeat three to five times per session. - Acu-points can curb food cravings and power your metabolism for better weight management.
When fed a standard chow diet, P1P2P3-AR-KO mice had a small increase in fat stores when compared with wild-type mice. However, a calorically dense diet, high in fat and sucrose, induced massive obesity in P1P2P3-AR-KO mice. The observed weight gain of 25 g in 8 wk represents the development of extreme obesity and is similar to that observed in leptin-deficient ob ob mice. The marked obesity observed in high calorie-fed P1P2P3-AR-KO mice is caused entirely by a defect in diet-induced thermogenesis (31). These findings establish that P-ARs are required for diet-induced thermogenesis, and that this pathway plays a critical role in the body's defenses against diet-induced obesity. The target tissue mediating sympathetically driven diet-induced thermogenesis is unknown. Although brown adipose has been proposed as the primary target, data from mice lacking UCP1 strongly argue against this. In brown adipose, UCP1 is a downstream component in the generation of heat following sympathetic...
Single-gene mutations related to obesity often involve leptin and melanocortin. Leptin is a protein produced in adipose tissue that provides negative feedback to appetite control centers. Obesity may reflect lack of hormone production or a lack of leptin receptors. There are leptin-deficient animal models, and rarely, this deficiency has been identified in humans. In leptin-deficient people, weight loss results when leptin is replaced. Leptin supplementation in non-leptin-deficient obese subjects does not result in weight loss (Bray, 2002). and fluctuation in plasma glucose levels. Neuropeptides and monoamine neurotransmitters are also involved in appetite control. Some weight loss medications exert their influence through modulation of neurotransmitter levels, which may affect appetite or satiety.
Polymeric formulas typically have low osmolality of 300 to 500 mOsm kg. These formulas usually supply essential vitamins and minerals in amounts similar to the Adequate Intakes or Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for these nutrients when the formula is delivered in amounts adequate to meet macronutrient requirements of most patients. Many polymeric formulas are inexpensive relative to oligomeric formulas. Most polymeric formulas are lactose-free and gluten-free, as are most modern tube feeding products. Products designed to be used as oral supplements generally are polymeric and often have sucrose or other simple sugars added to improve taste.
The causative agent of gonorrhea is the gonococcus (N. gonorrhoeae) - a small, diplococcus whose flattened apposing surfaces, tinctorial properties (when stained by Gram's method), and association with polymorphonuclear leukocytes provide a typical microscopic picture. In certain sites (e.g., urethra, joint, cerebrospinal fluid, ocular conjunctiva), demonstration of the typical morphology is virtually diagnostic. From other sites (rectum, pharynx), however, the possible presence of other gonorrhea types renders the Gram-stained smear less sensitive. For all sites, culture of the organism on artificial media is required for diagnostic assurance. Confirmation requires typical morphology, demonstration of indo-phenol oxidase production, and the ability of the organism to metabolize glucose, but not fructose, maltose, sucrose, or mannitol.
Does physical activity and exercise contribute to an improved appetite regulation There is a public perception that exercise makes you eat more. This is most certainly true, but the important question is whether the resulting increase in energy intake fully, or only partially, compensates for the energetic cost of the physical activity. This may depend on the sizes of the fat stores and there is evidence to suggest that lean subjects fully compensate for the energy cost of exercise, while overweight and obese subjects are less likely to fully compensate. In a review, King et al. 11 conclude that exercise tends to normalize appetite response. It has also been suggested that exercise may help to regulate energy balance because of an asymmetry in appetite control, in which the hunger drive operates more powerfully and precisely than the satiety drive 12 . Overall, the available literature provides little evidence to suggest that exercise causes an increase in energy intake beyond...
Relevant paradigms, such as responses to high- and low-calorie food pictures, show elevated temporal lobe activation (C.M. Gordon et al. 2001), while elevated medial prefrontal and ACC activation is found in both underweight and recovered patients with anorexia nervosa (Kurosaki et al. 2006). Tasting sucrose solution versus water decreased activation in the insula and striatum of weight-restored subjects with anorexia nervosa (Kurosaki et al. 2006). Increased striatum activation was found during a non-food-related reward processing task (Wagner et al. 2007). During tasks related to body image distortion, increased activation has been observed in the frontal and parietal lobes (Uher et al. 2005) the ACC (Audenaert et al. 2003) and the brainstem, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus (Wagner et al. 2003). In another study using body image distortion tasks, Uher et al. (2004) found decreased parietal lobe activation. Taken as a group, these studies suggest that patients with anorexia nervosa have...
Many healthy-heart diets and foods have a reduced fat content but, in most instances, have replaced fat with sugar and, even worse, refined sugar. As fat intake has decreased, refined sugar and processed grain intake has skyrocketed. The average American consumes more than 150 pounds of added refined sugar every year.
Although malnutrition is still a problem in the United States, inappropriate nutrition, especially calorie-nutrient imbalance leading to overweight and obesity, has become commonplace. Recent NHANES studies demonstrate that the prevalence of overweight (BMI 95 ) in girls 2 to 19 years old increased from 13.8 in 1999-2000 to 16 in 2003-2004, and the prevalence of overweight in boys 2 to 19 years old increased from 14 to 18.2 (Ogden et al., 2006). Increased pediatric BMI is associated with high blood pressure, sleep apnea, asthma, polycystic ovarian syndrome, type 2 diabetes, gastroesophageal reflux, and orthopedic problems (Benson et al., 2009). A nationwide survey of more than 6000 children and adolescents found that at least 30 consumed fast food on a typical day. These children consumed more total fat, total carbohydrate, more added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, less milk, and fewer fruits and nonstarchy vegetables than children who did not eat fast food (Bowman, 2004). The...
The response to solutions of the four fundamental tastes (sweet--sucrose, sour--citric acid, salty--sodium chloride, and bitter--quinine sulfate) should be evaluated in the anterior two thirds of the tongue. The patient should be instructed not to eat or smoke for several hours before testing. Before test solutions are applied, the mouth is rinsed with distilled water. Then, using cotton swabs, a test solution is placed on the lateral, anterior tongue. The patient should be instructed to state whether the solution is sweet, sour, salty, bitter, unknown, or without taste. Between test solutions, the mouth should be swished with distilled water. Each side should be tested separately. To eliminate olfaction, patients should pinch their nose or hold their breath during the testing.
The aims for these prevention studies are to investigate the effectiveness of different ways of preventing dental caries. These include different methods of strengthening the teeth (such as the use of fluorides in different forms), modification of diet (such as the use of sugar substitutes), or modification of health behaviours (such as tooth brushing techniques and habits, oral education programmes). The target populations for these studies are mainly children, the elderly and special needs groups. Most of the clinical trials are phase I or phase II types. For those studies investigating the effectiveness of different forms of fluorides (in the form of toothpaste, topical fluorides, sealant), randomisation of the assignment of groups with different regimes (including the control group) can be done at the individual level with parallel design. In a study to compare the effectiveness of two toothpastes with different concentration of fluoride to arrest root carious lesions, 201...
The Maillard reaction occurs when lysine-containing proteins interact with reducing sugars. The first stable compound formed during the Maillard reaction is the Amadori product (so-called because it is the result of a class of reaction called the Amadori rearrangement), shown in Figure 10.1. These compounds block the e-amino groups of lysine residues, reducing the bioavailability of that essential amino acid. This reaction is dependent on a reducing sugar, usually lactose, being present as the co-reactant (Erbersdobler, 1986).
An array of subsequent studies confirmed that low-frequency (20-500 kHz) ultrasound was indeed highly efficacious in enhancing the transdermal absorption of a diverse range of penetrants. Frequencies lower than 100 kHz were reported to be particularly effective. Mitragotri et al. (1996) compared a frequency of 20 kHz with a frequency of 1 MHz in terms of the permeabilization of human cadaver skin in vitro. Enhancement ratios, defined as the ratio ofthe sonophoretic to passive permeability, were employed to quantify permeabilization for butanol, corticosterone, salicylic acid, and sucrose. They reported that the enhancement induced by 20 kHz ultrasound was up to 1000-fold greater than that induced by 1 MHz ultrasound. Low-frequency ultrasound has also been used successfully to accelerate the in vitro transdermal flux of other small molecules such as mannitol (Merino et al., 2003), morphine (Monti et al., 2001), and caffeine (Boucaud et al., 2001). The extent of reported transport...
Another recent artificial sweetener to come into the market is called Splenda (sucralose). Splenda was discovered in 1976 and is made by replacing three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the sugar (sucrose) molecule with three tightly bound chlorine atoms. Because sucralose is not broken down, the sweetener has no calories, and the body does not recognize it as a carbohydrate. Approximately 600 times sweeter than sugar, Splenda is exceptionally stable and can withstand long shelf-life and hot cooking temperatures. Furthermore, sucralose received FDA approval in April 1998 for use in 15 food and beverage categories, the broadest initial approval ever given to a no-calorie sweetener.
Diabetic cats should not be fed diets containing fructose. Fructose is often found in commercial semi-moist foods, as a humectant and as high-fructose corn syrup. Cats do not metabolize fructose, causing fructose intolerance, polyuria and potential renal damage. Some nutritionists believe that high carbohydrate diets may be partly responsible for the onset of diabetes mellitus in cats. As a rule, soluble carbohydrates should make up no more than 30 of the total dietary carbohydrate level.
For a quick nutritious snack, a deliriously healthy dessert, or even part of a creative meal, fruit rules. Similar to its neighbor in the produce section, fruit is naturally low in calories and fat (except for avocado and coconut), while chock-full of nutrients and fiber. Get in the habit of keeping a stash of fresh fruit. Although dried fruit is another tasty option, keep in mind that it is more concentrated in calories because it has less water than its fresh counterparts. Also, beware of canned (and sometimes frozen) fruit with heavy syrup added they are packed with calories and sugar. When buying canned or frozen fruit, read labels and look for key phrases such as no added sugar, packed in its own juice, packed in 100 fruit juice, or unsweetened.
Nociceptive pain is triggered when receptors detect injury or irritation. Acetaminophen, local anesthetics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and or steroids are indicated for somatic pain (i.e., sharp localized pain caused by activation of Adelta fibers located in peripheral nerves), such as lacerations, burns, needle procedures, abrasions, and ear or skin infections. Cold packs and tactile stimulation can also be helpful. For neonates, breast milk and or oral sucrose can be helpful for one-time injection pain (Shah et al. 2007). Intraspinal local anesthetics, NSAIDs, opioids, and or steroids are indicated for visceral pain (i.e., generalized pain that can be dull or sharp, caused by activation of C fibers with deeper innervation), such as joint pain, muscle pain, kidney stones, appendicitis, or sickle cell pain. Surgical pain is typically related to activation of both A-delta and C fibers and is responsive to NSAIDs and opioids.
1 cup firmly packed brown sugar Combine 3 cups of the apples and the brown sugar in a bowl let stand 45 minutes. Heat oven to 350 . Grease and flour a 6-cup fluted tube pan. Combine dry ingredients in a medium bowl. Combine oil, eggs, and vanilla in a small bowl stir into the apple-sugar mixture. Stir in dry ingredients and remaining apples until blended. Pour into the prepared pan. Bake 40-45 minutes, until a toothpick inserted in the center of cake comes out clean. Cool in the pan on a wire rack 10 minutes unmold cake and cool completely. Sprinkle with confectioners' sugar.
As in ulcerative colitis, etiologic hypotheses vary widely, from the excessive eating of cornflakes, refined sugars, or margarine, to bottle-feeding rather than breastfeeding, environmental pollutants, the indiscriminate administration of antibiotics, and the use of oral contraceptives among young women. A wide variety of bacteria and viruses have been implicated, and although none has achieved etiologic status, the new microbial pathogens now being identified have renewed interest in microbial possibilities including mycobacteria. Other suggested but un-proven etiologies have included blunt trauma to the abdominal wall (e.g., seat belt injury) the ingestion
The interactions of sucrose esters with the casein micelle (Fontecha and Swaisgood, 1995) and P-casein (Clark et al., 1992) have also been studied. Creamer (1980) examined the effect of SDS on the P-casein self-association. The results indicated that SDS binds on an external site of P-casein, such that the hydrophobic tail of SDS becomes involved in the casein self-association. This is supported by the lack of displacement of ANS by SDS. It was also postulated that SDS binds to sites in or on the protein such that the amino acid residues involved in the self-association reaction can interact more favorably with one another. At low concentrations, SDS is thought to bind to a limited number of sites. Despite the increase in the negative charge of the protein, the normal monomer-polymer equilibrium moves predominantly to the polymer in solution whereas, at high concentrations, only protein monomers are present.
Many diabetics and health care providers operate under the misconception that plain sucrose as a sweetener results in hyperglycemia and should be avoided. However, studies have not shown this to be true, and patients do not need to restrict sucrose intake, but rather should monitor the total carbohydrate load in the diet. Some recommend replacing sucrose with fructose in the diet because fructose has a lower glycemic index. There is some concern that fructose adversely affects lipids, however, so this substitution is probably not beneficial. All appear to be safe. Diabetic patients should consume carbohydrates through fruits, whole grains, vegetables, and low-fat milk. The total amount of carbohydrate in a meal is important it is not necessary to consume particular foods based on the glycemic index. Sucrose and sucrose-containing foods do not need to be avoided by diabetic patients, but should be counted as part of the total carbohydrate load in the diet. The four FDA-approved...
It might surprise you that many people with anorexia and bulimia attend meetings of Overeaters Anonymous (OA), an organization founded in 1960 for compulsive overeaters and patterned after the twelve-step program of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Some bulimics find OA's strict requirements comforting and helpful you limit yourself to three meals a day, restrict your range of foods at mealtime, avoid sugar and other binge-triggering substances, check in with your sponsor daily by phone, and attend weekly, even daily, OA meetings. Others find this system triggering because it seems to increase an inappropriate focus on food and may escalate the desire to binge. How you respond to a self-help strategy is personal. Not liking one doesn't mean there's something wrong with you or that the program is bad it just means you must keep searching until you find a group that fits your needs and wants.
1 TB. brown sugar 172 lbs. pork tenderloin Preheat oven to 325 . Make marinade mix soy sauce, liquor, and brown sugar. In a plastic bag, marinate pork tenderloin for 2-3 hours. Cook for 1 hour. Make sauce by mixing sour cream, mayonnaise, scallion, mustard, and vinegar. Serve sauce on the side or pour over the pork tenderloin.
Although the relationship between eating and mood is of intense interest in the general culture, this area of study is highly underrepresented in the scientific literature. Popular science writers commonly assume that mood is directly affected by certain food groups (Dufty, 1975 Fredericks & Goodman, 1969), but there is a surprisingly small amount of data to support this. For example, sugar consumption is widely believed to result in tension, but recently, biochemical studies have suggested that, contrary to belief, the primary effect of sugar ingestion may be tiredness (Spinweber, 1981 Wurtman, Hefti, & Malemed, 1981 see also review by Spring, Chiodo, & Bowen, 1987). In a recent study of mine, however, sugar ingestion was immediately followed by an increase in energy, and by tiredness and increased tension after an hour (Thayer, 1987a). I have argued that tiredness could be the primary biological effect of sugar ingestion, but that observed tension increases could be a secondary...
Patients with the following conditions should use laxatives only under the supervision of a health care provider (a) colostomy, (b) diabetes mellitus (some laxatives contain large amounts of sugars such as dextrose, galactose, and or sucrose), (c) heart disease (some products contain sodium), (d) kidney disease, and (e) swallowing difficulty (bulk-formers may produce esophageal obstruction).
Extensive study of the epidemiology of the Cuban outbreak revealed smoking, weight loss, sugar consumption, and excessive alcohol intake as risk factors. Urban men 25 to 64 years of age were most affected. Pregnant women, children, and the elderly were minimally affected however, these groups were targeted for supplementation before the outbreak. Women were more likely to develop paresthesias in the feet, whereas men were more likely to develop optic neuropathy. y In Africa, pregnant women are most vulnerable,y and smoking and weight loss were the strongest risk factors for the optic neuropathy variant.
Studies with sheep found that certain drugs, particularly lipophilic morphine-type drugs, encounter difficulties in the process of diffusing through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pathways to reach distant receptors. Thus, the choice of opioid for infusion must account for the location of receptors. Using drugs like hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, naloxone, and sucrose, as a control, Payne and coworkers tested the spread of specific opioids in CSF. Approximately 90 minutes after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, morphine and sucrose were identified in the lumbar CSF. Hydromorphone was located after 0 minutes. Because the ICV dosage of lipophilic opioids creates CSF distributions that are distinctly different from those of hydrophilic drugs such as morphine, methadone was never found in the lumbar CSF.1
Ingested large and complex molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, triglycerides) are degraded for absorption into simple sugars, small peptides, amino acids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and monoglyc-erides. Some are absorbed by active transport mechanisms and others by passive diffusion along concentration gradients.
Patients with severe hemophilia may receive primary (before the first major bleed) or secondary (after the first major bleed) prophylaxis. All hemophiliacs with a major bleed require factor VIII replacement.11 The therapy may include recombinant (produced via transfection of mammalian cells with the human factor VIII gene) or plasma-derived (concentrate from pooled plasma) factor VIII (Table 67-2). The choice of product and dose are based on the overall clinical scenario because the efficacy of various preparations does not differ. Newer-generation plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrates are considerably safer owing to advancements in viral testing and inactivation technology. While original recombinant factor VIII concentrates were stabilized with human serum albumin, potentially creating a source for viral contamination, new generation recombinant factor VIII concentrates are stabilized with sucrose, eliminating the concern for viral transmission.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas and used by the body to regulate glucose (sugar). Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin, or cannot use it properly, leading to too much sugar in the blood. Symptoms include thirst, excessive urination, tiredness, and unexplained weight loss.
Glucose is the major precursor for glycogenesis and must be supplied in the postexercise period to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis. The lowering of muscle glycogen levels during exercise results in activation of the enzyme glycogen synthase 24 and the more extensive the glycogen depletion, the greater the activation of glycogen synthase and glyco-gen storage 25 . The control of muscle glycogen synthesis is shared between sarcolemmal glucose transport and glycogen synthase 26 , and glycogen storage in the immediate postexercise period is positively correlated with both glycogen synthase activity and total GLUT-4 content 27,28 . Complete restoration of muscle glycogen stores following prolonged, strenuous exercise requires ingestion of carbohydrate and usually takes at least 20-24 h. The optimal amount of carbohydrate ingested appears to be about 0.71 g kg body mass 2 h, i.e. 50-70 g every 2 h for a 70-kg person, aiming for a 24-h intake of 500-600 g 29,30 ....
The increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide reflects, in part, economic development. The prevalence ranges from approximately 2 in the least developed countries to over 30 in the most developed countries. In developed countries, however, lower socioeconomic status is associated with an increased risk. Proposed reasons for this observed difference include reduced access to medical care, healthy foods, and exercise facilities among lower socioeconomic groups. Furthermore, foods that are more energy dense (through the addition of added sugar) are less costly than nutrient-dense foods (Thompson et al., 2009).
The accumulation of toxic organic acids in the CNS has been proposed as a possible mechanism of UE. y However, studies of CSF acidity in uremic patients and of acid-base balance in the CSF, blood, brain, and skeletal muscle of uremic dogs y have been normal. Although the permeability of the BBB is increased toward insulin and sucrose, its permeability toward weak acids is decreased. y
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