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Neuroimaging of Happiness and Reward

The most consistent activation across several studies involving happiness induction is in the basal ganglia (ventral striate and putamen) (Phan et al., 2002). These include recognition of happy faces, pleasant pictures (including attractive faces), recall of happy memories, pleasant sexual arousal and competitive arousal of a successful nature (reviewed in Phan et al., 2002). In one study, transient happiness had no areas of significantly increased activity but was associated with significant and widespread reductions in cortical rCBF, especially in the right prefrontal and bilateral temporal-parietal regions (George et al., 1995). In their fMRI study, Breiter et al. (2001) found that the prospect of a monetary reward was associated with responses in SLEA and orbital gyrus. In a similar study, Knutson et al. (2001a,b) used fMRI and found that anticipation of increasing rewards elicited ventral striatal (nucleus accumbens) activation, along with increased self-reports of happiness. In...

The Science of Happiness

Is happiness something that can be scientifically studied A newer branch of psychology that goes by the name of positive psychology answers this question with a resounding yes. Its proponents also say that this field of study has profound implications for children's social and emotional development. Positive psychology generally places more emphasis on techniques for using positive thoughts and emotions to influence behavior, and less on happiness as a goal or as a conceptual construct. Wealth is only weakly correlated to happiness within and across nations, particularly when income is above the poverty level. Trying to maximize happiness can lead to unhappiness.

Towards A Theoretical Account Of Happiness

As we have stated above, for the purposes of the present chapter, whether or not an individual is happy conflates across many goals in different domains and at different levels of the system. In the domain of positive emotion, experiences such as joy or exhilaration are responses to the achievement of or movement towards active goals and are more akin to the states of anger, fear, sadness, and disgust. We are not presenting anything new here this understanding of happiness has been around for thousands of years. To quote Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics Any chance person - even a slave - can enjoy the bodily pleasures no less than the best man but no-one assigns to a slave showing happiness (1177a5). Over recent times, a number of authors (e.g., Argyle, 2001 Averill & More, 2000 Carver & Scheier, 1990 Ortony et al., 1988 Power et al., 2005 WHOQOL Group, 1998) have suggested that happiness is a function of individuals' fulfilment in various domains of their life (for example, self,...

Fredricksons broadenandbuild theory of happiness

To summarise, in this section we have looked at research investigating avowed happiness and the reasons people are able to generate for that happiness. It is clear that such research, while often illuminating and provoking, suffers from the lack of an overarching theoretical framework within which to approach the numerous issues that are generated. In addition, there seems a clear need to move away from self-reports of happiness to a more objective theoretical approach. There is considerable evidence, for example, that people are influenced by culturally shared theories rather than their own phenomenal experience of cause and effect when generating self-report data (e.g., Nisbett & Wilson, 1977) and this work is reviewed by McIntosh and Martin (1991) with respect to happiness. Perhaps even more illuminating, with respect to the need to shift away from the self-report approach, is the anecdotal description by Friedman (1978) of the problems involved in researching happiness using...

Traditional Approaches To The Study Of Happiness

In order to assess whether or not individuals are happy, researchers have devised a number of fairly straightforward self-report measures, although because of the wideranging nature of the concept it is not always happiness that these inventories purportedly measure. There now exist questionnaires that look at positive affect , subjective well-being , satisfaction with life , quality of life , and a number of other related constructs. Although there are clearly debates about the relationship of these different concepts to each other, it is our broad assumption in this chapter that they are all more or less intended as synonyms for the concept of happiness when taken in its broadest sense (e.g., Layard, 2005). On the prototypical happiness questionnaire, the respondent is asked, on a single- or multiple-item scale, how happy he or she is for example, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985), The Depression-Happiness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), The...

Happiness Order And Happiness Disorder

The concept of happiness disorder is one that is rarely discussed in the emotion literature. Perhaps it is because, in Western society, we are more tolerant of variations and extremes within the parameters, both cognitive and physiological, that define a particular individual's positive emotions, and are thus less likely to label the emotion as disordered in comparison to the case of extreme variants of negative emotions such as anger, fear, or sadness. In other non-Western cultures happiness or joy are regarded as far less socially acceptable than in the West. For example, the Ifaluk, whom we discussed in Chapter 7, equate happiness with a tendency for the individual to disregard others and the needs of the social group. For the Ifaluk, then, happiness is a negative emotion, whereas sadness is encouraged as a positive emotional state. Despite the paucity of discussion in the literature on abnormal happiness, we propose that extreme variations in the cognitive or physiological...

Happiness as the sum of positive experiences

Ed Diener and his colleagues have taken a somewhat different tack in the search for what makes people happy. They (e.g., Diener & Lucas, 1999 Diener, Sandvik, & Pavot, 1991 Diener et al., 1999) have proposed that self-reports of happiness are primarily a function of frequently experienced pleasant or positive affect and infrequently experienced unpleasant affect. In a number of studies they have shown that people who differ in their reports of happiness invariably differ in the amount of time in their lives in which they experience pleasant affect. It is important to note that Diener and his colleagues are talking principally about the frequency of experiences of positive emotions and not the intensity. In fact they claim that intensity is almost unrelated to subjective reports of well-being (e.g., Diener & Lucas, 1999 Larsen & Diener, 1987). Diener's work is interesting and important in that it reveals a relationship between global concepts such as happiness and more circumscribed...

Happiness as a noncircumscribed emotional state

In the introduction we noted several definitions of the broad emotional state of happiness. Although these attempts at definition capture some of the breadth of the concept of happiness, research into the nature of happiness has, for the most part, been conducted outside such definitional guidelines or theoretical frameworks. Such research has either tended to ask people what they feel makes them happy or has examined the correlates of happiness in people who claim to be happy (e.g., Veenhoven, 2000). The findings from these approaches have revealed a number of issues and paradoxes that, in our view, underline the need for a thought-out, theoretical framework before we can achieve any measure of understanding of the concept of happiness. In the section that follows we consider some of this research and some of the issues that it has generated.

Gap accounts of happiness

The research we have considered above on the affective and resource correlates of self-reported happiness has taken the participant's avowed happiness as a starting point and systematically investigated aspects of the individual's life which might be related to feeling happy. In contrast, gap theories are concerned with the processes that might underly self-reports of happiness that is, what determines whether individuals will report that they are happy. Such gap theories of happiness (e.g., Michalos, 1986 Smith, Diener, & Wedell, 1989) have proposed that individuals judge their own happiness by making a comparison between their actual conditions of life or performance or view of themselves versus some standard. If the comparison is favourable, happiness is increased if the comparison is unfavourable, happiness is compromised. Gap theories are either explicit or implicit in many related concepts of subjective well-being and quality of life. For example, the World Health Organization's...

Emotional States Related To Happiness

Throughout this chapter we have conceptualised happiness as an emotional state that conflates across a number of different dimensions and levels of the cognitive system. We also noted at the start of the chapter that there is a host of other positive emotional states which seem much more specific than what we have called happiness for example joy, gladness, being pleased, satisfaction, delight, exhilaration, ecstasy, and so on. In addition, there are a number of quite complex emotional states that clearly have one of these positive emotions as an ingredient for example, nostalgia, homesickness, love. In this section we shall discuss a selection of these aspects of emotional life and their relationship to happiness. Our analyses are by no means comprehensive rather, the intention is to provide some pointers to the more complex emotions that we think are derived from or related to the basic emotion that is focus of the chapter.

Correlates of happiness

There exists a plethora of research findings concerning the covariation between measures of happiness on scales such as those described above and a variety of demographic and resource variables. This research is comprehensively reviewed by Argyle (2001) and Layard (2005). To overview briefly, age and education show only small correlations with subjective reports of happiness (Diener, 1984). It has been found that income is related to well-being, but that this relationship is only significant below a minimal level of income and is consequently much stronger in poorer countries (Vitterso et al., 2002) moreover, the effect may be of relative income compared to others in a community or culture rather than to the absolute level of income (e.g., Helliwell & Putnam, 2005). Okun and George (1984) found a surprisingly small correlation between health and reports of happiness when objective measures of health are employed, although there is a small but clear effect (Power, Quinn, Schmidt, & The...

A note on happiness and personality

Contemporary research into personality focuses more and more on the big five personality traits introversion-extraversion, neuroticism (or negative affectivity), openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (e.g., Digman, 1990 McCrae, 1992). A host of studies indicate that individuals who score highly on extraversion and or low on neuroticism tend to report greater happiness (e.g., Costa & McCrae, 1980 Diener & Lucas, 1999 Emmons & Diener, 1985). Similarly, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness also make contributions to self-reported happiness over and above the contributions of the other big five dimensions. Indeed, McCrae and Costa (1991) found that the five factors together accounted for some 25 of the variance of avowed happiness. Other researchers have delved more deeply into the processes that relate personality characteristics to emotional well-being or happiness. For example, Pavot, Diener, and Fujita (1990) and Diener, Sandvik, Pavot,...


OF HAPPINESS 325 HAPPINESS 329 EMOTIONAL STATES RELATED TO HAPPINESS 342 HAPPINESS ORDER AND HAPPINESS We hold these truths to be self-evident - that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. One of the puzzles of modern economics is that despite the genuine increase in the wealth of the developed nations there has not been an equivalent increase in the happiness of people populating the developed nations (Diener, 2003). One interpretation has been that although physical capital has increased, there has been a concomitant decline in social capital that is, the social support and social networks with which we all enrich our lives. Although the reasons for the decline in social capital are likely to be complex (Layard, 2005), to take one simple example the impact of television over the past 50 years has been considerable. A very dramatic study of television's impact...

Psychological Factors

Likewise, a large body of research indicates that positive emotional states are associated with better health and longevity. Happiness, optimism, and positive attitudes toward aging have been associated with 7 more years of life (Danner et al., 2001 Levy et al., 2002). Almost three decades of research have shown that an optimistic outlook has a positive effect on coping and on mental and physical health outcomes (Peterson and Steen, 2002). Family physicians have long recognized the importance of mobilizing and maintaining patient hopefulness through encouraging words that foster positive expectations of medical treatment. Additionally, the demonstrated efficacy of placebos affirms the importance of this approach (Sobel, 1991).

Cortical Subcortical Factors in the Generation of Emotionality

Cases of pseudo-bulbar palsy, a condition in which patients have uncontrollable episodes of laughter or crying without an apparent triggering stimulus and without associated feelings of happiness or sadness (reviewed in Poeck, 1969 Rinn, 1984), have been interpreted as reflecting damage to pathways that arise in the motor areas of the cerebral cortex, descend to the brainstem, and inhibit motor output systems for laughter and crying. In that view, the lesions placed mostly in subcortical structures (basal ganglia and the internal capsule), would disinhibit or release the laughter

Ricardo Ruizlopez Diego Beltrutti Athina N Vadalouca Mauro S Nicoscia

Although some definitions indicate that terms such as happiness and satisfaction are integral elements, others mention that measures of sociopersonal balance or QOL should include physical, social, and emotional functions, attitudes toward illness, and personal features of the patient' s daily life, including family interactions and the cost of illness.3 Some definitions of QOL treat it as related to the individual' own perception, emphasizing that the breadth of the term covers many aspects of life.13

The Classical Tradition

Social integration affects mental health in a second way through regulating inherent human needs and desires. Durkheim believed that human nature leads people to have insatiable desires. Yet, happiness requires that needs be proportionate to means. Only strong collective rules can create limits on needs It is not human nature which can assign the variable limits necessary to our needs. They are thus unlimited so far as they depend on the individual alone. Irrespective of any external regulatory force, our capacity for feeling is in itself an insatiable and bottomless abyss (1897 1951, p. 247). Note that Durkheim explicitly did not associate poverty with For Durkheim, social bonds that are neither too weak nor too oppressive and socially promoted goals that are neither too vague nor too demanding optimize individual mental health. Good social institutions bring individuals into unity with society so that individuals do not perceive themselves as isolated but as part of a collective. In...

Altruistic Consequentialism

Altruistic consequentialism is really a euphemism for utilitarianism. These theories argue that in situations where self-interest and the interests of the community clash, the self is obligated to sacrifice its interests for the good of the community, assuming of course that the benefits obtained by the larger community exceed those to be gained by the self. Utilitarianism typically answers the question, ''What is the good '' as actions that promote happiness, with happiness defined as acts that maximize pleasure or minimize pain. This is a prescriptive formulation with greater normative force, because it defends the human capacity to freely choose the greater good even to the detriment of self-interest. Both Ben-tham and Mill fall into this camp. Mill even goes so far as to say that personal sacrifice for the greater good of the community is the highest virtue that can be found in human beings. ''Though it is only in a very imperfect state of the world's arrangements that anyone can...

Consequential Decision Making

Mill argued that restricting pleasure to quantifiable pleasures ignored quality as a vital consideration in the moral situation. This concern for quality in the agent's attempt to maximize personal happiness is not a novel idea in Mill. Epicurus supported a similar position in suggesting that pleasures of the mind are superior (purer) than bodily ones. They are not, as Epicurus says, ''mixed.'' Epicurus argues that bodily pleasures are usually accompanied by associated evils as well, for example, hangovers for alcohol and jealousy for physical love. the only way this cure can finally be discovered is through painful and fatal experimentation on 10 healthy newborn infants. Although Bentham, as an act conse-quentialist, would have to justify this experimentation, Mill as a rule consequentialist would not. For what would a society be like if acts of this type, as a rule, were generally accepted This rule, by ignoring a right to life, would make people insecure and afraid, perhaps...

Contemporary Social Theory and the Sociological Study of Mental Health

Three major foci of the sociology of mental health identified above. First, theories of individualization are most relevant for thinking about the social origins of mental distress, as they see contemporary life as producing psychic challenges and, often, distress in the lives of individuals. Second, critical theoretical perspectives contribute most to thinking about the nature of mental health and distress. In focusing on the ways in which structures of power and domination in the broader society produce distorting effects on the human psyche at the very same time that they mute discontent and promote pseudo-happiness, they challenge conventional definitions of mental health and distress. And, third, Foucauldian postmodern perspectives, because they view psychotherapeutic practices as an important site of power and social control, are most relevant for thinking about the social and personal implications of psychotherapeutic practices and discourse.

Insanity and Psychosis

The relationship between Ho Chun's Taoist philosophy and his medical theories are most apparent in his consideration of mental illness. He based his medical philosophy on the three essences of the Taoist religion spirit, air, and god. To simplify, we may say that Ho Chun spoke of seven aspects of mind happiness, anger, melancholy, thought, sadness, fear, and fright. Injury to these seven minds results in disease and mental illness.

The Nature of Mental Health and Distress

Adorno (1991)focused on the culture industries as a core component of the totally administered society, arguing that the culture industries promoted conformity and contributed to the decline of individuality. In place of genuine individuality, the culture industries promoted pseudo-individuality, as individuals increasingly sought identity and personal expression through consumption of mass-produced goods and commodified leisure experiences. According to Herbert Marcuse, the culture industries and other aspects of the totally administered society obliterated intra-psychic conflict, creating the one-dimensional man, or, in other words, an emergent society of people who were identified thoroughly with the existing society and did not seem to have any depth in their psychological make-up (Marcuse, 1955,1964). Marcuse distinguished between true needs and false needs, the former referring to vital needs which have an unqualified claim for satisfaction and the latter defined as desires for...

Environmental Ethics

Humans, as individuals and communities, assume values and behavior in everyday life. Ways of life can be understood along anthropocentric and biocentric lines of reasoning. An anthropocentric position is represented by ways of life pursuing the well-being and happiness of human kind as ultimate aims. The biocentric position is represented by ways of life dedicating intrinsic value to nature and to populations of various species, as exemplified in the discourse of Deep Ecology.

Consumption And Unhappy Consciousness

Despite such benefits, there is a good deal of evidence that the evolution of consumer culture constitutes a development that is antagonistic to aspects of the human psyche. The cultural celebration of the object has imprinted members onto the material world and thereby distanced them from the deeper timeless plane of existence. Life can become an uninspiring search for solutions to one's artificial tensions and false needs, which is more likely to foster ennui and dullness rather than happiness. Style, rather than character development, becomes the end goal of personality. In the dream factory of endless consumption, as Jerome Braun writes in relation to modern social pathology, character traits such as thoughtfulness, compassion, and wisdom receive little recognition since they do not contribute significantly to economic productivity.9 Instead, modern economic and cultural structures are better suited to those who can maintain a supply of consumable escapism and titillation within a...

Creativity and Cultural Diversity

Similarly, the daily lives of people impact how creativity is expressed in a culture. For example, in Turkey there is much poverty and oppression toward women. As a consequence of the arduous farm life experienced by Turkish women, artistic creativity is expressed in the form of embroideries, folk art, and song. Tales of happiness, love, and friendship are intricately interwoven into colorful embroidered traditional clothing, while tales of pain and sorrow are incorporated in their songs. In some East Asian countries such as India, creativity is highly associated with spirituality. Creativity is viewed as a personal journey of self-actualization and transformation of self which may not create a tangible visible product. Therefore, creativity is highly valued across cultures but differs in its manifestations.

Attribute Substitution

The heuristics and biases research program has focused primarily on representativeness and availability - two versatile attributes that are automatically computed and can serve as candidate answers to many different questions. It has also focused principally on thinking under uncertainty. However, the restriction to particular heuristics and to a specific context is largely arbitrary. Kahneman and Frederick (2002) argued that this process of attribute substitution is a general feature of heuristic judgment that whenever the aspect of the judgmental object that one intends to judge (the target attribute) is less readily assessed than a related property that yields a plausible answer (the heuristic attribute), individuals may unwittingly substitute the simpler assessment. For an example, consider the well-known study by Strack, Martin, and Schwarz (1988) in which college students answered a survey that included these two questions How happy are you with your life in general and How many...

Accessibility and Substitution

Not readily come to mind, but the search for it evokes other attributes that are conceptually and associatively related. For example, a question about overall happiness may retrieve the answer to a related question about satisfaction with a particular aspect of life upon which one is currently reflecting. Attributes that are not naturally assessed can become accessible if they have been recently evoked or primed (see, e.g., Bargh et al., 1986 Higgins & Brendl, 1995). The effect of temporary accessibility is illustrated by the romantic satisfaction heuristic for judging happiness. The mechanism of attribute substitution is the same, however, whether the heuristic attribute is chronically or temporarily accessible.

Stress Exercise and Drug Manipulations

Other arousal manipulations are also commonly employed in studies of mood. For example, circadian and ultradian rhythms were extensively studied in relation to energy, tension, and other mood states (see Chapter 4 and discussion below concerning mood and menstrual cycles). Other moods, such as optimism, happiness, and physical well-being, have been studied in relation to circadian arousal rhythms (Thayer, 1987b).

System 2 The Supervision of Intuitive Judgments

The bat and ball problem elicits many errors, although it is not really difficult and certainly not ambiguous. A moral of this example is that people often make quick intuitive judgments to which they are not deeply committed. A related moral is that we should be suspicious of analyses that explain apparent errors by attributing to respondents a bizarre interpretation of the question. Consider someone who answers a question about happiness by reporting her satisfaction with her romantic life. The respondent is surely not committed to the absurdly narrow interpretation of happiness that her response seemingly implies. More likely, at the time of answering, she thinks that she is reporting happiness A judgment comes quickly to mind and is not obviously mistaken - end of story. Similarly, we propose that respondents who judge probability by representativeness do not seriously believe that the questions How likely is X to be a Y and How much does X resemble the stereotype of Y are...

Right to an Unaltered Genome

It has been suggested that every human being has a right not to have their genome altered by other humans. Germ-line gene therapy would alter human genomes (though somatic therapy would not), and therefore germ-line gene therapy is unethical. This argument has the advantage of being rooted in the language of human rights, which is widely recognized as voicing valid ethical concerns (we think of the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights as outlining ethically ideal behavior for governments, for example). But this right is certainly not one of the ''traditional'' rights debated over time (for example, the American right to ''life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness''). On what basis do we gain such a right It is not at all clear. Perhaps it is on the basis of human dignity (see next section). Another difficulty is the idea of a nonexistent person having rights (which is very controversial). While people who complain about their being treated with germ-line gene therapy would be...

Institutional Economics

'Innovation systems' proposed by Richard Nelson is an example of an institutional economics theory focused on innovation it explores how companies are imbedded in and supported by a variety of nonmarket institutions, leading to corporate innovation. A typical example is universities funded by the government to undertake research and training in fields relevant to an industry thus supporting the latter's companies' innovation. Another example, offered by Amar Bhide, is consumers' willingness to try new things that support corporate innovation. Finally, Edmund Phelps investigated what kind of society-level institutions are appropriate to both higher initiative, and hence growth, and increased human fulfillment, or in classical terms, happiness.

Cognitive Affective Models

In a recent meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research, Baas, DeDreu, and Nijstad concluded that a number of variables are involved in this complex area of mood and creativity. Specific mood types (not just positive and negative) and aspects of those moods must be considered. They concluded that positive moods do produce more creativity than neutral moods. But this is true for positive moods like happiness that are activating and associated with approach motivation. It is not true for positive but deactivating mood states like relaxation. They point out that an interesting practical implication of this finding is that relaxing in a bathtub or on the beach may not be conducive to creative thinking. How the task is framed is also important. Positive moods lead to more creativity when the task is framed as enjoyable and intrinsically rewarding and to less creativity when the task is framed as serious and extrinsically rewarding. As for negative affect, in general, deactivating...

Emotional Similarities

The above research on the effects of mood has often focused on mood as a transitory experience, or a psychological state. Another related topic is the concept of positive affect as a psychological trait, or a long-lasting attribute of one's personality. For example, in 2008, Tammy Pannels and Amy Claxton Kozbelt and Nishioka concentrated on happiness as a positive personality characteristic their findings were consistent with several theories suggesting that happiness should have a direct positive effect upon creative cognitive processes. Specifically, these authors found a moderate positive correlation (0.34) between happiness scores and creative ideation scores. Trait happiness might be considered to be related to the trait of cheerfulness, which has been studied quite extensively by Willibald Ruch and his colleagues in their development of the State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory (STCI), one of many measures of sense of humor. Interestingly, in one study using the STCI discussed by...

Toward The Invisible Parent

The antiquated notion of maternal instinct is no longer taken seriously as a primary source of cultural motivation, and the same is true of instinctual drives toward parental nurturance in general. Increasingly children are becoming an extension of the impression management strategies used by alienated parents who have retreated into a romance with their own potential. If one's children can also be made to realize their potential, this is even more proof for the anonymous public that the parent is realizing his or her full potential. The child's new role as impression manager of the parent is the reason many parents today feel a compulsive urge to push their children to their limits and beyond in order to achieve conspicuous victories. The emotional costs to the children tend to be rationalized with the assumed logic that excellence and fame will open doors and give them a grounding for future happiness.

Implications for Treatment

Some productive and creative individuals suffering from mood disorders may be reluctant to engage in treatment using either medications or psychotherapy, fearing that it may interfere with or decrease creativity or productivity, or that a greater degree of happiness or satisfaction may be incompatible with art. Research is unclear and opinion somewhat divided on the relationship between quality and quantity of creative output and treatment, but there are strong hints that support the substantial value of thoughtful treatment. First, there are a number of creative individuals who have reported favorably - in the scientific literature and elsewhere - on the positive effects of pharmacological treatment on their creativity, especially in reducing severe manic or depressed episodes. There is other research documenting a general satisfaction with treatment for bipolar disorder. I also want to argue that at least partial and episodic happiness is not incompatible with creativity and that -...

Day 2 Identification of feelings in a healthy way

Happiness should remain amongst a grieving child's emotional range. Thus, the camp continued to focus on joy by providing structured play sessions. Additionally, the day's challenge activity was a scavenger hunt that allowed children to forget their work and discover happiness as they sought the hidden treasure.

The Interests of Animals

According to Singer, some entity has interests insofar as it is sentient insofar, that is, as it can ''suffer or experience enjoyment or happiness,'' taking these terms in their widest possible senses (1993,58). Now certainly, ''the strength of the evidence for a capacity to feel pain diminishes'' down the evolutionary scale, as, roughly, does that for the degree of suffering possible (1991, 171). Humans and some of the higher mannals have an increased capacity for suffering and happiness for interests because they can anticipate, remember, and more widely consider their lives. On Singer's thinking, this does not change the fundamental point. All and any interests that are there to be considered are to be taken qua degree of happiness or suffering they represent equally with those of humans. As this implies, Singer is also a consequentialist. As a thorough-going utilitarian, he wants the consideration of interests to be made as quantitatively as possible. The moral course is to...

Solitude Asociability and Antisociability

Highly creative individuals are generally characterized as having a strong desire to be isolated from the society in order to avoid the influence of others and environment. In his book entitled Solitude, Anthony Storr discussed how people view interpersonal relationships as the only means of happiness, leading them to overlook the importance and necessity of intellectual and creative development. It appears, at this point, to be helpful to distinguish between creative skills and interpersonal skills, with the former necessitating solitude that brings discomfort to many people. But, since creative people actually require solitude to a certain extent, it is not an issue for such people. As Storr says

The Standard Is Not Objective

Guish among several meanings of the words ''subjective'' and ''objective.'' Let us do so with reference to pain. First, when subjective means having some relation to the experiences of subjects, and objective means relating to objects, then pain is subjective. But this does not make it either inappropriate or unreliable as a criterion to use in judgments about someone's quality of life. We try to reduce unnecessary suffering because we believe that people's suffering is important and should be part of our deliberations about what we ought to do. In addition, we would not want to rule out subjective considerations generally. Pleasure and happiness are also subjective in the sense of being experiences of subjects, rather than properties of objects, yet we judge whether treatments should be continued when someone experiences a life with pleasure or happiness.

The Interaction of Valence Activation and Regulatory Focus

A three-dimension theory has been recently proposed to explain the relationship between one's emotional state and creativity the three dimensions are hedonic tone (positive vs. negative), the level of activation involved (activating vs. deactivating), and its association with regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention). Mood states that are associated with a promotion focus (e.g., anger, sadness, and happiness) should expanded attentional scope and thereby facilitate creative performance, whereas mood states that are associated with a prevention focus (i.e., fear, relax, and calm) should produce a more constricted scope of attention and thereby impede creativity.

Phenomenological Studies of Constructs Related to Creativity

'Peak experiences' are defined as moments of highest happiness and fulfillment. Maslow (1971) and Laski (1961) provided accounts of such experiences in religious and non-religious contexts, such as during childbirth or athletic events, and while enjoying music, nature, or dancing. It has been argued that heightened creativity is a characteristic of peak experiences and that creative work is a common trigger of peak experience. Maslow (1962) stated that peak experiences release a person for greater creativity, spontaneity, expressiveness, idiosyncrasy (p. 101). Maslow (1971) also asserted that it is the power to evoke peak experiences that distinguishes great art from the inconsequential. Rollo May (1959) stated that ecstasy, the central feature of peak experiences, describes a level of consciousness that occurs during the creative act.

Implications of the Conversation With Glaucon

It is because modern (secular) philosophy has ignored the question of structural psychic change through conversation that philosophy and psychoanalysis have seemed, at least on die surface, to be such different types of activity. What possible routes can philosophy then take, given that it ignores this question One way to explore the consequences is according to this dilemma either philosophy cuts itself off altogether from the Socratic question of how to live, or it continues on with that question but without a concern for dynamic psychological structure. On the first lemma, philosophy becomes an abstract inquiry into the most basic world-structuring concepts, for example, the nature of causation, logic, what it is to be a mental state, meaning, and the conceptual foundations of physics. This would be the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake about the basic structure of mind and world. On the second lemma, philosophy would still purport to give some account of how to live via an...

Subjective states and creativity

However, even if definitive findings emerge linking creativity to the valence dimension of states, the positive negative bipolarity may turn out to be too restricted to explain the complexity of affective state relationships with creativity. Some authors have already criticized the concentration of research on valence. States, particularly negative ones, can have complex dimensional structures and two 'negative' states can be different enough to have contradictory effects in relation to creativity. Other dimensions need to be considered, such as activation. Activating states such as anger, fear, or happiness may conceivably lead to more creative fluency and originality than deactivating states, such as sadness, depression, or relaxation as the former involve drive and motivation to act. Examination of the relationship between creativity and the underlying dimensions of stress state, considered to be a negative and activating state, may give new insights into the creativity-affect link...

Activity and Passivity in the Mind

But what significance do these fantasies have for human happiness and freedom Obviously, we know that certain fantasies are painful, inhibiting, crippling. But, philosophically speaking, the question is about the significance of having any kind of fantasy life at all. On the one hand, fantasies are forms of mental activity on the other, we seem to suffer passively many of their consequences. They bypass our will more or less

Cognitive processing biases and positive affect

The final factor to consider when analysing the effects of positive affect on cognitive processes is the increasing body of evidence which suggests that individuals experiencing positive affect are more likely to recruit heuristics or stereotypes when faced with task demands, as opposed to systematically processing the various options available. For example, Bodenhausen, Kramer, and Susser (1994) report four experiments examining the effects of happiness on the tendency to use stereotypes in social judgement. In each experiment, participants in the induced happy mood rendered more stereotypical judgements than those in a neutral mood. However, when the participants were told that they would have to be held accountable for their judgements, the stereotypic thinking bias disappeared. This finding that although there is some evidence for the use of stereotypes and heuristics in individuals with positive affect, they can nevertheless still engage in more systematic processing of the...

Multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA

Hypotheses such as, 'Are younger adults going to score higher on happiness than older adults ' If we obtain an overall score on our measuring device then the data is suitable for a univariate analysis that is, analysing a single dependent variable - the participant's score on the test. We can then undertake a univariate test such as a t test (if we have two groups of participants) or an analysis of variance (if we have more). However, we may not produce a composite score for the questionnaire but wish to analyse the different questions as separate dependent variables. In this case we could do lots and lots of univariate tests on each separate dependent variable. The problem with this is that we will undertake lots of tests and increase the risk of a Type I error. A solution to this is to perform a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) which allows the analysis of more than one dependent variable. In the table below I have added an additional question from the questionnaire where...

Aromatherapy Aromatology and Aromachology

Aromachology coined by the Sense of Smell Institute (SSI), USA, 1982 is based on the interrelationship of psychology and odor, that is, its effect on specific feelings (e.g., relaxation, exhilaration, sensuality, happiness, and achievement) by its direct effect on the brain.

Determinants of Energetic and Tense Arousal Including Cognitive Mood Interactions

Two experiments showing the influence of exercise and circadian rhythm on mood were completed over three-week periods. Participants took AD ACLs at fixed times of day, which represented high and low circadian arousal levels (Thayer, 1987b). In the first experiment, the participants also rated the perceived seriousness of a long-term personal problem at four times of day representing different levels of diurnal arousal. The other experiment used the same basic methodology, but here participants made ratings of their general level of optimism, happiness, and sense of physical well-being twice a day. Participants in both experiments took a rapid ten-minute walk once each day, using the same walking method described in the previous experiment. They took the walk at various times, but never within 1.5 hours of a completed measurement. Immediately after the walk, the participants filled out an AD ACL and rated the seriousness of their problem once again.

Some remarks on passionate love

It is clear from this attempt at a definition that Hatfield and Rapson conceptualise passionate love as consisting of the same types of components that we and others have argued constitute all emotional states appraisals, subjective feelings, physiological change, action tendencies, and interpretations. But what type of emotion is passionate love The problematic nature of such a question is well illustrated by a cross-cultural study carried out by Shaver, Wu, and Schwartz (1991). They interviewed students in the United States, Italy, and the People's Republic of China about a variety of emotional experiences including happiness, love, fear, anger, and sadness. There was a remarkable level of cross-cultural agreement concerning all of these emotions except for one love. The participants from the United States and Italy tended to equate love with happiness and other positive affective states. The Chinese students, on the other hand, had a far bleaker view of love. In Chinese there are...

Summary Of The Spaars Model


The core appraisal for fear involves the interpretation of threat to the individual, for example, to the individual's physical safety, or to the individual's goals or plans (in addition to the goal of physical safety), or of threat to something or someone valued by the individual. Sadness involves an appraisal of loss or failure, again of something or someone valued by the individual. Anger consists of the frustration or attempted blocking of a goal or plan where there is a perceived agent that has caused the frustration or blocking. The agent, however, while typically taking a human form need not necessarily do so, be it the lamppost that shouldn't have been there, the glass of milk that shouldn't have spilled, or fate that shouldn't have been against you. Happiness (in the sense of joy ) on the other hand is the achievement of a goal or plan or of movement towards a goal or plan. Finally, disgust is the rejection of something, whether concrete or abstract, that is repulsive to the...

Group Idea Generation

One possible reason for the mixed results for diversity in enhancing creativity might be the role that mood plays. Both positive and negative moods have been shown to have an impact on creativity, but their effects depend on a complex mix of factors. Positive moods appear to be related in increased flexibility or divergent thinking, especially if individuals have a focus on accomplishment (promotion focus) and they involve some level of activation or arousal (such as happiness). In contrast negative mood states may increase task persistence if there is some level of activation (e.g., anger) and there is some prevention focus (a concern for safety and tendency to avoidance). These individuals may not take the 'risks' involved in divergent thinking but may be highly motivated to persist on the task and possibly come up with novel insights in that way. From this vantage point, when diverse groups are associated with activating positive feelings and a promotion focus, these factors may...

Conspiracy of Silence

Similarly, failure to provide the information to the patient's family can lead to a decrease in the quality of their relationship in the time remaining, because the patient's tensions and fears are not understood by family members and friends. Dunphy (1976) described a patient with terminal cancer who asked that his wife not be told. He then quickly planned a world cruise, which they had wanted to take for some time. The wife, unaware of the reason for the hasty departure, was unhappy and complaining throughout the trip, while the husband saw himself as a silent martyr, trying to provide a final measure of happiness for his wife. Only after returning home and reminiscing on this miserable cruise did he tell his wife the truth and the reason for the precipitous departure. Had she been told earlier, their final days together could have been a pleasant and memorable experience. At a time when the terminally ill patient most needs closeness, a lie may serve to push them apart.

Combinations Of Sadness And Other Basic Emotions

SADNESS-DISGUST SADNESS-ANGER SADNESS-ANXIETY SADNESS-HAPPINESS self-disgust following the break-up of a relationship. Such a combination may be central to the experience of depression, so we will return to the pairing of sadness and disgust in the subsequent section on depression. The second example is that of the combination of sadness and anger, a pairing that used to be thought to be pathological in the experience of bereavement, but which, from the work of Bowlby (e.g., 1980) and others, is now known to be a common experience in both children and adults following temporary or permanent breaks in attachment relationships. The third example is that of sadness and anxiety which, again, may be a common combination following a loss in which individuals feel depleted of resources and therefore fear for their capacity to deal with future demands. The final combination, that of sadness and happiness, is probably best known to us in forms such as nostalgia, homesickness, and...

Exchange Relationshipspostmarital Depression And Divorce Culture

Other frequently cited reasons for divorce include loss of mutual respect, waning feelings of love, and conflict of various sorts in addition to those related to money, but an interesting trend that has appeared is that increasing numbers of divorces unfold without any obvious signs of conflict. Nearly one-third of divorces are now of this conflict-free variety, in which one or both partners simply experience the feeling that they would be happier elsewhere.

The arguments for basic emotions

While acknowledging a diversity among proponents of the basic emotion concept, Ekman, Friesen, and Ellsworth (1972) have pointed out that every investigator has obtained evidence for a central list of six basic emotions happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust contempt. This point was reiterated by Fridlund, Ekman, and Oster (1987). However, along with Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987) we question the status of surprise because it is a cognitive component that could be present with any emotion, rather than being a unique emotion in itself for example, one might experience surprise if Partick Thistle scored six goals against Glasgow Rangers, but only supporters of these teams are likely to experience emotion, or one could Desire, happiness, interest, surprise, wonder, sorrow Anger, disgust, anxiety, happiness, sadness Happiness, sadness To date, there is almost no research bearing directly on the issue of the universality of a small set of core appraisal scenarios because...

Psychological Effects Of Materialism

Whereas initial consumption can create the experience of pleasure, the phenomenon of adaptation soon ensures that the pleasurable sensations become neutralized.23 Satisfied desires are automatically replaced by new ones that demand attention, but it does not take long before the object of consumption fails to offer any sort of thrill, and that again speaks of the sadness after intercourse effect. The consumer encounters confusion when the act of consumption does not deliver the expected pleasure and happiness. Even young children can be affected by an agitated bewilderment that stems from this breach between heightened anticipation and actual experience as it relates to consumption. A different situation exists among the poor, who lack the means to act upon much of their consumer desire. They often experience the frustrating awareness that their extreme financial constraints are somehow blocking access to socially defined pathways to happiness. This idea often combines with feelings...

Facelifts An Uplifting Experience

Sandy had been recently divorced and was making all the exercise, nutritional habits, and career moves to make a new life for herself. She felt self-conscious about the crows' feet wrinkles that were on the outside corners of her eyes. To her they represented the years of worry and anguish that she left behind with her divorce. They were not anything that she thought about having surgery for, but would still like to get rid of them. I began to use tiny facial acupuncture needles on her wrinkles that are so small I need tweezers to put them in. They are also painless and go in the end of the wrinkles to stimulate blood flow. Following the treatments her face felt a little tighter, until after her twelfth treatment she was pleased with the retreating wrinkles and was off to enjoy a new life. I've not seen her since, but I'm sure that the happiness and beauty she created and fostered on her inside have continued to shine and be noticeable to all on the outside.

Want my child to make friends Ive heard that social skills are important to teach to kids with ASDs but I dont know how

- Create or adapt games around topics that will motivate your child to participate. For example, if your child loves dinosaurs, you can create a game where you pretend that a small ball is a dinosaur egg. The children can pass the ball to one another to keep it away from the T. rex who is chasing them to eat the egg. By creating games around your child's interests, your child will be happier and more motivated to engage socially.

Temporal lobe epilepsy emotions from nowhere

The air was filled with a big noise, and I thought that it engulfed me. I have really touched God . . . Yes, God exists I cried, and I don't remember anything else. You all, healthy people, can't imagine the happiness which we epileptics feel during the second before our fit . . . I don't know if this felicity lasts for seconds, hours or months, but believe me, I would not exchange it for all the joys that life may bring.

The Evolution Of Modesty I

It is clear, wrote Stendhal, that three parts of modesty are taught. This is, perhaps, the only law born of civilization which produces nothing but happiness. It has been observed that birds of prey hide themselves to drink, because, being obliged to plunge their heads in the water, they are at that moment defenceless. After having considered what passes at Otaheite, I can see no other natural foundation for modesty. Love is the miracle of civilization. Among savage and very barbarous races we find nothing but physical love of a gross character. It is modesty that gives to love the aid of imagination, and in so doing imparts life to it. Modesty is very early taught to little girls by their mothers, and with extreme jealousy, one might say, by esprit de corps. They are watching in advance over the happiness of the future lover. To a timid and tender woman there ought to be no greater torture than to allow herself in the presence of a man something which she thinks she ought to blush...

Prevalence and incidence of psychosis following TBI

De Clerambault's syndrome has also been noted as a possible complication of TBI. This syndrome is characterised by, generally, a woman having the conviction that she is involved in amorous communication with a person of higher social rank. This person was the first to make advances towards her and to fall in love with her. This may be associated with the view that the object can never find happiness without her, that his overt attachments or marriage are invalid, that contact is made indirectly by means of his immense resources, his conduct may be outwardly paradoxical, and that their relationship is universally acknowledged and socially approved. The onset of the

Treating coexisting depression

It was difficult for Janet to identify the way in which she could make her life worth while. To her, happiness equated to success and she believed many non-academic activities to be pointless. She perceived her previous employment as an insurance salesperson as a demeaning activity. In contrast, she would tell me on a regular basis that she had achieved ten O levels (basic school examinations) and four A levels (advanced examinations).

Two routes to emotion

The need for two routes to emotion is based in part on the fact that the basic emotions have an innate prewired component and, in addition, on the proposal that certain emotions may come to be elicited directly, without any apparent on-line interpretation or appraisal. For example, Seligman's (1971) proposal that in relation to phobias certain stimuli may be prepared stated that people are more likely to develop phobias towards snakes, rats, and spiders, than they are to cars, public transport, and kitchen sinks (despite frequent unpleasant experiences with the latter group). Seligman argued that such biological preparedness made sense on evolutionary grounds, even if individuals had little or no direct experience of these stimuli in modern society. Although Seligman's proposal has had a somewhat chequered history (e.g., Rachman, 2004), it forms part of a more general recognition that genetics provides us with a psychological starting point and a set of maturational tasks, albeit that...

Towards a core set of basic emotions

Factor Model Emotional Difficulties

Happiness Happiness As can be seen from the table, there is considerable agreement between the conclusions of the different approaches. Extrapolating from all three approaches, there is a core list of basic emotions anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. In terms of the theory of emotions that we propose, these four basic emotions would involve appraisals of stimuli in terms of current goals and plans being in some way compromised. However, there is also a place for an emotional response to goals and plans being successfully maintained. This we (and others, e.g., Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987) would argue is the function of happiness and this should also be regarded as a basic emotion. Finally, a direct empirical test of the dimensions versus basic emotion category approach was carried out by Power (2006). Following the linguistic analyses of emotion terms by Johnson-Laird and Oatley (1989), a Basic Emotions Scale was developed, with each of the five basic emotions of anger, sadness, fear,...

The interaction of inhibition and emotion emotion modules and the inhibition of emotional experience

We have stressed throughout the book so far that emotions have functionality, and we have proposed a cognitive theory of emotions in the present chapter that employs the concept of roles and goals to provide a language for the functionality of emotions. The basic emotions of anger, fear, sadness, disgust, and happiness are functional processes that operate when valued goal states are affected in different ways. So, for example, fear operates when a valued goal is threatened. The functionality of these emotion processes is manifested in the emotion taking over the SPAARS system which is reconfigured such that all of the constituent parts are employed in resolving the goal-related events that instigated the emotion (cf. Oatley & Johnson-Laird, 1987 see Chapter 3). So, in the case of fear, for example, the system will be configured to deal with the current threat and the environment will be monitored for future threat. This emotional imperialism the reconfiguration of the system as a...

Some Theoretical Comments

In the cognitive theory presented by Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987) disgust was also given a central role as one of their five basic emotions (see Chapter 3). The core of the theory is that emotions occur primarily at junctures in goals and plans the important juncture for disgust being a gustatory goal violated that leads the individual to reject the substance or withdraw. In addition, the infant emotion is seen to develop into adult forms as shown in loathing and distaste. Although Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987) say little further about disgust, Johnson-Laird and Oatley (1989) in their semantic analysis of emotion terms, show how a number of complex emotions such as guilt, shame, contempt, and loathing are derived from the basic emotion of disgust. In his later book Oatley (1992) further emphasised the interpersonal functions of disgust and disgust-based emotions. Oatley stated that the complex emotions of hatred, loathing, and contempt have the interpersonal function of...

Roles goals and plans

One of the important features of the SPAARS approach, with important therapeutic implications, is the centrality of the individual's roles and goals and the ways in which events are appraised in relation to these goals and plans. For example, the extent to which an individual will experience happiness, anger, depression, or whatever will, to a considerable degree, depend on the nature of that person's roles and goals, the extent to which roles and goals are achievable and realistic, the extent to which the focus on a particular role or goal serves an inhibitory function in relation to domains of potential conflict, and the extent to which life is fair or unfair. In the areas of depression and happiness for example, we have argued that there is a tendency for some individuals both to overinvest in one particular role or goal and underinvest in other roles and goals (Champion & Power, 1995). The individual vulnerable to depression may possibly experience success in the chosen domain and...

Rationality irrationality and the function of emotions

As we reviewed in the chapters on the basic emotions, the short-cuts that each emotion provides vary considerably. Although happiness is normally thought in our culture to be closer to rationality than the other negative basic emotions, it is clear that there are a range of self-serving biases associated with happiness that lead sufferers to overestimate their contribution to the positive things in the world

Preface to second edition

As we went through the more recent literature, it became clear that some of the debates we had assumed were done-and-dusted had in fact been refreshed from new work both in philosophy and in neuroscience, and that Plato and the modern feeling theorists were making a strong comeback. In our embracing of the basic emotions approach, we had also underplayed the importance of dimensional aspects of emotions, when in fact we believe that, like wave and particle physics, both approaches are necessary to describe the emotion system fully. However, we still firmly believe that a focus on basic emotions offers new insights and understandings into the emotional disorders. Therefore we have retained the structure of the first edition in which the second part of the book examines the five basic emotions of fear, sadness, anger, disgust, and happiness and their related disorders on a chapter-by-chapter basis. One thing that we do warn from the start, however, is that we have not written a book...

Personality disorders

We have suggested above that individuals' sense of happiness conflates across a number of domains of their life (self, others, and self plus others) and across higherorder and lower-order goals within those domains. We have also discussed, albeit briefly, Averill's suggestion that, for most of us, even in supposedly individualistic societies, there is an investment weighting towards the shared domain of self and others at the end of the day, we are all essentially social beings. Within this framework, individuals whose sense of happiness is a result of overinvestment in the self domain might be thought of as struggling with disordered happiness .

Other Affective Disorders

Other rarer affective disorders include the bipolar disorders and the seasonal affective disorders. Because of the important role of mania and hypomania in the diagnosis of bipolar disorders, we will hold the discussion of these until Chapter 10 when we discuss disorders of the basic emotion of happiness.

Oatley and Johnson Laird

Oatley and Johnson-Laird (1987) further propose that there is a set of at least five basic emotions that form the foundation for their theory. They base this conclusion on the evidence from, for example, studies of the facial expression of emotion (e.g., Ekman, 1973), studies of emotional development, and so on, as summarised earlier in the chapter. In addition, Johnson-Laird and Oatley (1989) carried out a linguistic analysis of emotion terms in which the basic emotions were treated as unanalysable semantic primitives, which in combination with other factors can lead to more complex emotions (see also Ortony et al., 1988, for an alternative approach to the linguistic analysis of emotion terms). The five basic emotions that they derive from these different types of data are captured by the English terms happiness, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust thus, other emotions are considered to be derived from one of these basic emotions through the inclusion of additional information that...

Joy And Other Circumscribed Positive Emotions

Joy may be conceptualised as the emotional state related to an appraisal that a valued goal has been achieved, or that movement towards such an achievement has occurred. So, for example, somebody might feel joy when she is able to go and book her summer holiday. Such an analysis of joy clearly distinguishes it from what we shall call happiness. Joy is very much an emotional reaction to a specific goal in a specific domain, whereas happiness, it seems, casts its appraisal net much wider. It is perfectly feasible for an individual to experience joy with respect to a specific goal while not being generally happy when all goals in all domains are considered together (cf. Fredrickson, 2005) similarly, it seems possible for an individual to be happy in general while also feeling some fear, anger, or sadness as a result of appraisals concerning specific goals in specific domains.

Inhibition and facilitation

In a number of chapters we have highlighted the roles that inhibition and facilitation play in the expression of emotion (see also Dalgleish et al., 1999). It was pointed out, for example, that many cultures have preferences for which of the basic emotions are permissible and which are not thus, the Ifaluk treat happiness as a negative emotion because it makes the sufferer blind to the needs of others and full of pride for the self (Lutz, 1988). As the bible also reminds us Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall . . . We know too from studies of the nervous system that the current states represent subtle balances between inhibitory and facilitatory processes at all levels of complexity. In sum, inhibition and facilitation need to be considered at all levels of explanation in relation to emotion, from the neuron up to the level of culture (Dalgleish & Morant, 2001).

Further Comments And Conclusions

1996), our prediction would be that recovered depressive patients should be too positive and should, for example, find it more difficult to moderate a positive mood, under conditions in which such a mood would interfere with a cognitively demanding task thus, normal individuals may use mood-incongruent recall under such conditions in order to modify positive distractions (Erber & Erber, 1994). If there is a failure of integration of positive and negative aspects of the self in depression, then during recovery when the positive aspects of the self predominate, there should be less regulation of the positive state because negative aspects of the self may be unavailable or excluded at such time. At their most extreme, such uncontrollable positive mood states are, as we have noted, present in mania and hypomania (Power, de Jong, & Lloyd, 2002), but we will leave further discussion of these until Chapter 10 when we consider happiness and its disorders.

Final Comments On Spaars

If a theory doesn't butter any parsnips, then, however grand it may appear, it will be of little scientific value. We hope that we have demonstrated throughout this book that the SPAARS approach makes interesting empirical predictions and that it can be tested against rival theories. We believe that the SPAARS model provides a unique multi-level approach to emotion. The derivation of complex emotions and emotional disorders from the underlying basic emotions of fear, sadness, anger, disgust, and happiness provides a fruitful analysis of these often puzzling phenomena. Whether or not you are persuaded by the arguments that we have mustered, we hope that you may at least have been led to reconsider some of your own assumptions about the emotions and their disorders. Our own views have certainly changed in the process of trying to articulate these ideas, so that we are now beginning to understand the point from which we started. Our proposed two routes to emotion, we believe, offer both...

A note on nostalgia and homesickness

The combination of the emotion of joy with the emotion of sadness, we suggest, gives rise to the two complex emotional states of homesickness and nostalgia. Homesick individuals reflect on the home they have left behind with a mixture of sadness at the loss (albeit sometimes temporary) of home life and joy at the memories of the many rewarding things that are incorporated in the idea of the home. Similarly, nostalgia involves looking back at aspects of our personal past, or sometimes even the historical past of our country or family, with the same mixture of sadness that those times are no more, and happiness at the rewards and fulfilment that those times brought. Both of these complex emotions, we propose, would be a result of coupling within SPAARS (see Chapter 5), so that the same event (the home or an aspect of the past) leads to simultaneous appraisals at the schematic model level related to joy and sadness. One or both of these appraisal-based emotion pathways can also, we...

Note On Complex Emotions

1 A coupling of two basic emotions for example, sadness and happiness can become coupled to generate the emotion of nostalgia. We have described the model in three broad sections the content of the mental representations involved the various formats these representations take and the processes that act on the representations. The basic architecture of the model is a multi-representational one and has much in common with other multi-representational approaches to emotion, in particular MEMs (e.g., Johnson & Multhaup, 1992) and ICS (e.g., Teasdale & Barnard, 1993) which both include subsystems or levels that represent higher-order meaning and ones that reflect basic propositional and analogical properties of the information space. It is this class of approaches that we believe offers the most powerful framework within which to consider emotions. In addition, to the basic architecture, SPAARS has a number of properties that are an extension of existing multi-level models. In SPAARS,...

Etiology and Epidemiology

Once typhus organisms in infected human blood are ingested by a louse, they multiply rapidly in the cells lining the louse's intestines and are secreted in the feces of infected lice. Since rickettsiae are not found in other tissues (such as the salivary glands) of the louse, they are transmitted to new human hosts mechanically. This is usually accomplished by contact of infected louse feces with a small abrasion of the skin incurred when the human scratches the unpleasant itch caused by feeding lice. The disease spreads when lice leave feverish or dead victims for new hosts with normal temperatures. Unlike other rickettsial organisms, R. prowazekii is not passed from generation to generation in the eggs of its host arthropod. In fact, as Hans Zinsser of Harvard Medical School pointed out in his 1935 history of typhus fever, humans constitute a great threat to the health and happiness of these small creatures, for humans usually recover from typhus fever, whereas the disease is...

The Bothersome Barometer

It's normal to have emotions, but if one emotion gets stuck and keeps going watch out Traditionally, the seven emotions that can be too much for you are happiness, anger, worry, pen-siveness, sadness, fear, and terror. Stuck emotions can lead to excessive behavior such as road rage or anxiety.

The Importance of Hope

Even when death is near, the patient can hope for a measure of happiness during the amount of time he or she has remaining. The physician can support the patient's hope for a good quality of life in the remaining time, for spiritual healing, and for a final phase of life that has integrity and dignity.

The Repressive Coping Style

Another topic that deserves inclusion in any chapter on happiness concerns the question of individuals who maintain their self-esteem or happiness by denying the existence of negative material in their lives. Although usual analyses of this so-called repressive coping style (e.g., Derakshan, Eysenck, & Myers, 2007) would conceptualise it as the avoidance of anxiety, it is equally feasible to consider the motivation to be the maintenance of a state of positive affect, though at a price thus, it is an as yet unanswered empirical question as to whether repressive coping only relates to anxiety avoidance or whether other aversive emotions such as anger and disgust might also be avoided. This definition of repression as a function of the pattern of scores obtained from self-report measures of anxiety and defensiveness (social desirability) suggests that, for some individuals at least, a sense of happiness and high self-esteem may be maintained through the denial and defence of distressing...

Competency to Marry Have Sexual Relations and Divorce

Marriage is viewed as a fundamental right, and laws restricting the right to marry are subject to strict scrutiny by appellate courts. T he freedom to marry has long been recognized as one of the vital personal rights essential to the orderly pursuit of happiness by free men (Loving v. Virginia 1967 Turner v. Safely 1987).

The orbitofrontal cortex

In 1975, a physician, Raymond Moody, hit the best-seller lists with a book about survivors of near-death experiences. Nearly all reported similar pleasant experiences, an out of body experience, travelling down a tunnel towards light, meeting a being of light or religious figure who helped them to evaluate their lives and finally a decision to return to the material world. Variations on these themes exist in general, the presence of loved ones and feelings of security, peace and happiness are common. The religious aspects of the experience tend to coincide with the expectations of the individual, so Christians meet Jesus, while Hindus see the messengers of Yamraj coming to take them away. Such experiences can occur to people who believe they are near death when they are not and similar events are reported regularly by military pilots undergoing blackout G-force training. The limbic system seems to be crucial for these near-death experiences, with abnormal firing being the trigger,...

How to Use This Book

Part 4, The Big Picture, takes a chapter to focus on each of the three important growth areas in every child's life social-emotional, moral, and cognitive development. Here you'll find an overview of the dominant schools of thought that seek to define how a child learns, how he develops empathy and morality, and how he attains happiness that accompanies emotional resiliency.


Perhaps the primary signal regarding the extent to which an individual is currently safe or in danger lies in his or her affective responses, the emotions or moods that he or she experiences in a given situation. Positive affective states, such as happiness, signal to individuals that their current situation is benign or safe, whereas negative affective states, such as anxiety, signal that the situation is dangerous. Several theorists have recently proposed that these signals also tune the scope of conceptual attention, with negative affective states constricting, and positive states expanding the range of stimuli that are rendered accessible to consciousness. Undergirding this proposition, it has been


Cohabitation and marriage are different social institutions, according to some scholars. Nock (1995) has argued that cohabitation is much less institutionalized than marriage, at least in the United States and other countries in which it has become common relatively recently, because it is not covered by clear expectations or norms, and the legal rights and responsibilities of cohabiting partners have not been established. The requirements for establishing or ending a cohabiting union are minimal, with no legal or religious or community formalities involved. There is ambiguity about what it means to be a cohabiting partner, to the members of the couple themselves, their families and friends, their community, and to children belonging to one or both of them. The uncertainty about the nature of the relationship and its future seems to lead to lower levels of commitment, lower levels of relationship happiness (Brown and Booth 1996), and lower levels of emotional well-being, especially...


Variations among consequential theorists are nearly always rooted in different assessments of human nature. If, generally speaking, consequential theories argue that right action produces good results, consequentialists remain a good deal removed from consensus. Just what is the good What is the good result we are obligated to seek How a consequentialist answers this question depends on the different answers given to foundational teleological questions such as these Are humans necessarily selfish Is it in their capacity to act autonomously and, Are they able to put reason above inclination Consequential theorists posit a variety of answers to these questions, and their answers imply vastly different normative obligations, both individually and collectively. Each, however, is consequentialist in consistently grounding obligations in the view that right action is that which produces good results. If there is any consensus among consequential theorists, it is a very general sort of...


According to Dworkin, who has given us the standard definition of the term paternalism, paternalism can be defined as the interference with a person's liberty of action justified by reasons referring exclusively to the welfare, good, happiness, needs, interests or values of the person coerced. 6 Such a definition is essential but does not, by itself, take us very far. Feinberg took this a step further in first dividing paternalism into a form that seeks to prevent harm and a form that seeks to bring about another's good. Secondly, he distinguished between weak and what he called strong paternalism. Strong as well as weak paternalism may be motivated by preventing harm or by bringing about good.7

Human Smile

The human smile, one of the mercies that we acquire in the fetal stage, does not provide any financial consequence to anyone, although it offers many other benefits. A smile enriches the soul. Its effect consumes only a moment, but it can last for many years engraved in someone's memory. Its value can be felt when it fades away. A true smile creates happiness that does not differentiate between the intelligence and financial categories of the recipients. A smile melts barriers among humankind. The smile's profound psychological effect on human beings explains its value (Kent 1992). The smile is the most vivid of all our facial features because it is an extension and expression of the person as a whole. It is one of many facial expressions that are a part of our daily basic nonverbal communication (Renner 1985). The smile magnifies the beauty of the human face. person smiles, the vitality becomes apparent A smile makes the person appear full of life, and it reflects the virtues of the...


Whenever the heuristic attribute differs from the target attribute, the substitution of one for the other inevitably introduces systematic biases. In this treatment, we are mostly concerned with weighting biases, which arise when cues available to the judge are given either too much or too little weight. Criteria for determining optimal weights can be drawn from several sources. In the classic lens model, the optimal weights associated with different cues are the regression weights that optimize the prediction of an external criterion, such as physical distance or the grade point average that a college applicant will attain (Brunswik, 1943 Hammond, 1955). Our analysis of weighting biases applies to such cases, but it also extends to attributes for which no objective criterion is available, such as an individual's overall happiness or the probability that a particular patient will survive surgery. Normative standards for these attributes must be drawn from the constraints of ordinary...


Not only was she trying to hold down a job in which she was often out on a sick day, she could barely function at home with her family due to the debilitating pain of trigeminal neuralgia. Her pain began following a dental procedure, and a series of medications and other procedures had not been able to lessen her daily discomfort. She began to cry as she related the pain she faced during the course of a normal day, and how she felt bad that her children had to watch her suffer. She was unable to participate in life as she wanted to and had already lost hope when she turned the handle and entered my office. A friend had recommended that she try acupuncture to find out if it could help, even just a little. Donna experienced most of her pain along the nerve pathway beside her nose. Terrible shooting pains would take her breath away. We tried needle acupuncture at first, but did not have any change in her condition by the fourth treatment, so I decided to...


This broader position holds that ethical actions are those that produce the best consequences (however best is measured traditional utilitarian calculations use ''happiness''). The argument would follow that the use of germ-line therapy would produce an increase in happiness in the future, with less people suffering from disease, and therefore it should be used. Against these obvious benefits are questions about whether people in the future, if they know they are the product of genetic engineering (of some form), might not suffer psychologically or feel less human because of the action that was taken at such a early stage in their life. This then has to be measured against how ''happy'' they would feel if they were left alone and developed the disease that germ-line therapy could have prevented. These are speculative questions, hindered by difficulties of comparing people with nonexistent persons (''persons they might have been''), and as such are very hard to answer one way or...

What Is Forgiveness

Forgiving means that we choose to release resentment, hatred, bitterness, and desires for revenge for wrongs done to us it is a way to come to peace with the past. In forgiving, we decide to break our troubling connection to the offender. We realize that no offense is worth the price of destroying our peace. Forgiving is taking the arrows out of our gut, rather than twisting them around inside us. We move away from and beyond the offender and the offense and take full responsibility for our present happiness. We choose to forgive so that we will suffer less and be free to live. Sometimes forgiveness might even free the offender to heal and grow. For example, following the Los Angeles riots in 1992, Reginald Denny forgave the rioter who severely and deliberately injured him. He explained that although he was angry, he truly loved the offender. The offender's mother said Denny's response was the first action that softened her son's anger.

The Artist

Not only is the artist a creator but also a human being with wants and desires for everyday happiness and experiences. Jung saw the artist as wrought with conflict if these opposing forces - existence as a human being and as an artist - are not reconciled. Primarily the creator who does not acquiesce to the divine power of creativity that has been granted to him or her will be quite conflicted. The creative force is so strong that there is little energy to do much more in life, namely the simple pleasures of the average person. The artist is laced with a burdensome existence, often resulting in a selfish, helpless, infantile, egotistical way of being in the world.

Social Self

Although there have been few empirical examinations of the relationship between deflection and stress, Francis's (1997) research on support groups for divorcees and widowers demonstrates that individuals' definitions of situations and resultant deflections have real consequences for emotional well-being. Most ACT research focuses on the ways in which individuals redefine situations (also see Hochschild, 1983). Francis illustrates that some definitional changes are, in fact, motivated by interpersonal interactions (also see Thoits, 1995a). In her analysis, support group members worked together to reduce deflection and its concomitant emotional responses by changing the meanings of their spousal losses through the reconfiguration of actor-behavior-object relations. Specifically, widows and widowers who viewed themselves as being bad, weak, and inactive, and their deceased spouse as good, weak, and inactive, were often encouraged to view themselves as good, weak, and inactive, and their...

Consumer Trance

The spread of consumer culture to all the nations of the world is cause for additional environmental concern. Whereas growth-oriented Western economies fail to spread their wealth to people in exploited poor countries, they are adept at indoctrinating them with materialistic drives. With advances in communication, people across the globe are receiving the message that consumption and a life-style devoted to materialism are the best pathways to happiness and the good life. Of course, without the means to indulge in their new materialistic urges, they are often destined for frustration. Many can only watch as their own land and its people are depleted.

Future Directions

Numerous studies show that different cognitive performances can be influenced through motivational states or the 'regulatory focus theory.' For instance, a series of experiments strikingly document that a happy mood can positively influence creative performances, encourage the generation of innovative ideas, and promote the generation of exceptional free associations. At the moment neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the flow experience like happiness or fulfillment are discussed and investigated. Beyond this, Ronald Friedman and Jens F rster presented further experiments that underlined the influence of attitude on achieving positive outcomes (promotion focus) and creative performances. Recent results of studies in sport science suggest that it is worthwhile examining in more detail, in sport-specific settings, the dependent-variable divergent tactical thinking in line with the 'regulatory focus theory.'


Within a questionnaire (or indeed similarly structured dataset) we can examine the internal reliability of the items within it. If the five questions in the above questionnaire are measuring different aspects of the concept of 'happiness' then we can examine whether participants are responding to the different items in a consistent manner. I have used the term item here rather than question as it is a more general term and the item could be a question or a score on any specific task. Thus, we can examine the internal reliability of our questionnaire by looking at the relationships between the answers to the different questions.


(c) eternalism (reality is unchanging) and temporalism (reality is in constant flux) (d) realism (abstract ideas really exist) and nominalism (abstract ideas are but names in our language) (e) singularism (the individual is of primary importance) and universalism (the society is primary) (f) determinism (everything is caused) and indeterminism (humans have free will) and (g) the ethics of happiness (good and evil based on pleasure), the ethics of principles (good and evil decided by universal rules), and the ethnics of love (good and evil guided by compassion). It is as if the political polarization that causes intranational war in generation g - 1 induces ideological polarization in generation g. 2. In contrast, international war has a far more selective effect, and a negative one, discouraging the emergence of certain beliefs. In particular, one generation after major international warfare philosophers are less likely to advocate empiricism, temporalism, nominalism, singularism, and...

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