Does Energy Healing Work

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Energy Medicine Frontier Science of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

The practice of CAM presents many challenges to Western science. How does acupuncture work, and what is qi How can dilute homeopathic remedies induce effects on biologic systems What are the chakras, or energy centers, so integral to yoga and Ayurveda These mysteries present us with opportunities for new discoveries and an expansion of our healing capacities (eAppendix 11-3). Many scientists are showing how research in biophysics and bio-magnetism is helping to elucidate the subtle energies of

Healing Hands Acupressure and Reflexology

The benefits of a healing touch can bring about much-needed relaxation, may reduce pain, encourage lymph flow, reduce edema, decrease nausea, and improve sleep. Acupressure and foot reflexology (see Chapter 3, The Origins of Oriental Medicine ) can help you feel more in control and assist you in adjusting to body changes from surgery, chemotherapy, and cancer. According to Massage Magazine (March April 2000), patients who are touched during treatment experience a greater sense of relaxation and less insomnia, nausea, anxiety, depression, pain, and need for medication. acupuncture and Chinese medicine as components of the center's protocol for cancer patients. Touching a cancer patient not only helps with the physical symptoms touching also brings a sense of caring and acceptance that only the healing hands of another can bring.

Crystal Healing

The belief behind crystal healing is that stones of different colors have specific therapeutic value. Red-orange agate, for example, is thought to energize, amethyst is said to calm the conscious and subconscious mind, and bloodstone (or heliotrope) is believed to purify the blood. The popular violet amethyst is said to calm the mind. Crystal healing involves very simple procedures, such as placing particular stones around one's home, carrying them in a pocket, wearing them around the neck or elsewhere as ornaments, and touching them as the urge arises. In more formal types of crystal healing, a healer places various colored stones on different parts of the body while the individual is laying down. Often these are the body spots identified as meridians in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Chapter 6) and known as chakras in ancient India's Ayurvedic Medicine (Chapter 2). Most crystal healers do not make direct health claims, such as malachite cures heart disease. Rather, they claim that...

Faith Healing

Today, the term faith healer is most frequently used to identify those people who claim to have a special power derived from God that enables them to cure illness and disease. Faith-healing ceremonies typically are conducted in an atmosphere of high emotion, often on television or in traveling revival meetings, by self-appointed, religiously inspired healers. The term faith healing is applied also to a variety of efforts aimed at eliminating disease and disability through prayer, through visiting a religious shrine, or simply through an individual's strong belief in a Supreme Being. Sometimes these activities occur in the presence of a priest from an organized religion who leads the patient and family in more traditional prayer. Strong opinions exist on both sides of the debate about the power of faith healers and the ability of prayer to cure sickness and disease. Contemporary thinkers continue to debate the possibility that a combination of the patient's faith in a higher power and...

Therapeutic Touch

Therapeutic touch does not actually involve touching the physical body. Practitioners claim they are able to shift the energy field that emanates from the patient's body. Therapeutic touch shares with other alternative therapies, such as qigong, tai chi, biofield therapies, Reiki and others, the belief that there are energy fields or life forces in and around the human body. There is no touch in therapeutic touch. Rather, the therapist's hands, held inches above the patient, sense and alter the presumed energy field around the patient. Developed in the 1970s by Delores Krieger, PhD, RN, then Professor of Nursing at New York University, with assistance from Dora Kunz, a clairvoyant, therapeutic touch has become very popular and is often practiced in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health-care facilities throughout the United States and elsewhere. Krieger estimated that she taught the technique to more than 40,000 people as of 1995, and writes that her program is taught in over...

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

Native American healing systems blur the line that Westerners draw between religion and medicine. For example, a common Native American practice, particularly for young men, was an exercise known as the vision quest. In the vision quest, a young man would travel away from home, out into the wilderness for several days of fasting and prayer This ritual was assumed to encourage the spirits to provide the boy with a vision that would dictate the course of his life and his role in the life of the tribe. Many shamans and healers were called to their profession as the result of a vision quest.

Organization of Services

In rural areas, pediatric services are provided by medical officers, traditional healers, and medical trainees in the primary health centers, as well as by outreach programs run by either governmental or nongovernmental organizations. Psychosomatic presentations in rural settings can take the form of illness related to religious customs (such as being possessed by demons or a god) and are most often treated with traditional forms of therapy, as earlier mentioned, based on beliefs in the community. Patients in urban and metropolitan areas have greater access to psychiatric services, in particular in the outpatient setting. Significant growth has occurred in office-based practices in the past decade. Rates of psychiatric hospitalization and medication use in children and adolescents are low compared with those in Western countries.

Ventricular Fibrillation Experimental Evidence and Basic Concepts 1880s1920s

The first important research that treated VF with deeper insight into its pathophysiology was the work by John A. MacWilliam, a physiologist at Aberdeen University, who had, like every other physiologist, studied at Ludwig's laboratory. He was there at the same time as Walter Gaskel and Henry Bowditch of Harvard. In 1887-1889 MacWilliam published results of his experiments on ventricular fibrillation. He was convinced that the arrhythmia occurred independently of any mechanical relation of the ventricles to the rest of the heart, and of any nervous relation of the ventricles to the rest of the heart or to the extra-cardiac nerves. He demonstrated that fibrillary movements of the heart were the result of the lack of harmony in the contraction and relaxation of the minute muscular fibers that compose the myocardium, thus supporting the myogenic character of VF.34 The general appearance of VF was well known, but MacWilliam's accurate and colorful description claimed both a new clinical...

History of Chiropractic

Chiropractic is a system of healing that holds that disease results from a lack of normal nervous function caused by a disordered relationship between the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Controversial from its inception, chiropractic has grown into the largest nonallopathic healing profession in the United States, with nearly 35,000 active practitioners. Although considered by many a marginal group, chiropractors are licensed in all 50 states, are reimbursed by Medicare, Medicaid, and many third-party payers, and in 1984 earned an average yearly net income of 55,000. The recent defeat of the American Medical Association (AMA) by chiropractors in a major lawsuit dramatically emphasizes chiropractic's current strength. The public image of chiropractic has significantly improved, and opposition from medical organizations has abated. Chiropractic has successfully established itself as an alternative healing profession. of heroic therapies (i.e., vigorous cathartics, emetics, and...

General Considerations

Studies have shown that the frequency of use of complementary or alternative medical therapy in the United States is far greater than previously reported. These therapies include relaxation techniques, imagery, chiropractic, massage, spiritual healing, herbal medicine, acupuncture, homeopathy, folk remedies, and prayer, to name a few. It has been estimated that 42 of the American population uses at least one of these and other alternative healing methods to satisfy their medical needs. The most common users of complementary and alternative therapy are the more affluent people, women, those better educated, individuals born after 1950, and those who are concerned about emotional stress and the environment. The most common therapies were relaxation techniques (18 ), massage (12 ), herbal medicine (10 ), and megavitamin therapy (9 ). The perceived efficacy of these therapies ranged from 76 (hypnosis) to 98 (energy healing). The number of visits to providers of this health care is greater...

Applying Complementary Medicine

Although there are still confident herbal practitioners who believe and declare that whatever the modern scientific practitioners can do, they could substitute with other herbal remedies, the number who remain that committed is getting less and less. Indeed today, most herbal practitioners accept the role of functioning as supplementary or alternative healers in a combined effort of cure and care.11 Traditionally the system of herbal medicine was built on the rich experience of herb users or herbalists, accumulated over more than two thousand years in China since the early Chinese culture. For some reason, while basic medical sciences, e.g. anatomy and physiology, developed gradually in European territories around the Renaissance period, Chinese healers never felt the need to explore these basic medical sciences. Without sound knowledge of anatomy and physiology, i.e. biological structure and function of the human body, it would not be possible to explore abnormal structures and...

The contradictions between science and religion

Eddy (1821-1910), the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist in Boston, was also mentally unstable and reported that she was able to have conversations with God. She founded the Christian Science Monitor, a newspaper, and a magazine. Her teachings advocated refusing medical treatment in favor of prayers, because she believed in the spiritual healing of diseases, including all the bacterial diseases of childhood. It was said by her followers that she was able to heal people instantaneously, and this could well have been true if she was dealing only with rampant psychosomatic complaints. Initially, she had thousands of followers, but the number of believers has shrunk to less than 10 in recent years. Eventually she was found guilty of contributing to the deaths of several children, who got prayers instead of regular medical treatment. Some of her followers still believe in spiritual healing, and even recently this has resulted in the unnecessary deaths of several...

What Are The Other Elements Of Treatment Besides Medical Therapy

Negative preconceptions about epilepsy within certain ethnic groups may make some patients reluctant to seek treatment. The physician should be aware of and sensitive to these cultural differences. The acknowledgment of alternative forms of healing and spiritual healers may be meaningful to members of some ethnic groups and may have a place in the overall treatment plan of selected patients.

How does magnet therapy work

In theory, the application of a magnetic field increases blood flow by acting on calcium channels located in vascular muscle. Increased circulation improves tissue oxygenation with subsequent elimination of inflammatory byproducts that elicit pain. Magnets also may influence the metabolism and energy flow in both positive and negative ways. The positive magnetic pole is thought to decrease the metabolic rate (negative effect), whereas the negative pole normalizes the body's metabolic and energy function (beneficial effect). In addition, a membrane-stabilizing effect on nociceptive fibers may occur, rendering these fibers less excitable and reducing the firing frequency of unmyelinated C fibers. Research findings do not support claims regarding efficacy of magnetic therapy.

Everyday Creativity Identification

Through the lens of chaos theory, creativity may be viewed as a distinctly human hallmark of life's emergent systems (here using a term from nonlinear dynamical systems theory, or chaos theory) - of systems found everywhere from the working of our brains, to the weather, economic systems, and the rise and fall of governments. What is called creativity may involve a profound working out of a fundamental life force toward change, complexity, and benefit in our manifest reality, by human beings with intentionality, inspiration, and vision.

Note about the Next Three Chapters Qi Gong Tai Chi and Yoga

(Qi, as in Qi Gong, and Chi, as in Tai Chi, are different spellings of the same word. Both are pronounced chee ). Qigong, an ancient practice that originated 5000 years ago, aims to strengthen qi, the vital energy believed to course through all humans. Tai Chi is about 600 years old it is based on martial arts. Qigong is easy to learn. Tai Chi takes longer.

Changing Our Classrooms Changing Cultures

To our awareness and interactions in the moment. We are present, aware, empathetic, flexible, and can manifest mutuality in a give-and-take that is characterized by the hallmarks of everyday creativity, originality and meaningfulness. The context is one of intimacy and of enhanced group creativity. The outcome can often be, appropriately, a surprise. 7. Knowing the Joy - This shining reward can occur at any time, as one goes beyond preconceptions, fears, fixed views of self, to be present, take chances, enter the flow of life, and learn something new. There are also moments of frustration to be sure. Individually, creativity can enhance our further development, our potential for self-actualization. There are advantages for resilient coping, self-healing, seeing multiple options. Interpersonal creativity can also bring us more together and enhance our potential for caring and collaboration. For some people, creativity can further a spiritual path. Creativity is as diverse as we are....

Historical Perspective

Plants have been used as medicines for centuries, according to folklore, often without any perceptible efficacy. Plant materials were processed for medicinal use by chopping and grinding into powders or through aqueous extraction to make teas, smoking, or chewing. Often mixtures of plant products were combined ostensibly to create the most beneficial medicines. While the majority of these products were not effective, it was an accepted practice, and other than faith healing there was no real alternative.

Infloor Radiant Heating

In-floor radiant heat is used in the human-occupied and working areas of the stable rather than under the horse stalls. A common application is in the work aisle of a central-aisle stable. It can also be used in the wash stall, grooming stations, tack room, feed room, and lounge or office. In-floor heat under a bedded stall loses its primary heating effectiveness because of fresh bedding's insulating value and radiant energy blockage. The warm floor will aid in drying bedding and deposited manure and urine, but at risk of increased ammonia volatilization from the higher floor temperature and potential for dried, crusted manure on the floor. An in-floor heating system has a significant thermal lag time in both accumulating heat for delivery to the heated space and in holding the heat when the system is turned off. It is useful for supplying a continuous amount of heat to an environment.

Gandhi in Action Rise to the Mahatmaship

Whenever you are in doubt, or when the self becomes too much with you, apply the following test. Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man woman whom you may have seen, and ask yourself, if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him her . Will he she gain anything by it Will it restore him her to a control over his her own life and destiny In other words, will it lead to swaraj freedom for the hungry and spiritually starving millions Then you will find your doubts and your self melt away. (Nayyar, 1958 65)

Improving the Resident Learning Environment

Although residents are critically important to delivering direct patient care in teaching hospitals, the fundamental goal of residency training is education. It is through residency that physicians-in-training are transformed from novices into experienced professionals, providing society with competent and compassionate healers for the future. The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC, 2006) has recently reaffirmed that residents are first and foremost learners and that a resident's educational needs should be the primary determinant of any assigned patient care services. Similarly,

Methodological Approaches

The introduction of modern nosologic systems that followed on the heels of the U.S. - U.K. study led to renewed interest in epidemiologic research on schizophrenia using research methods that incorporated structured interviews and formal diagnostic systems, such as the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) (Spitzer et al., 1978) and DSM-III (American Psychiatric Association, 1980). Thus, the second type of study (B in Table 1) is characterized by a focus on treated populations using psychometric advances in diagnosis. The most noteworthy epidemiologic undertaking in this category is the World Health Organization's (WHO's) program of research on schizophrenia, particularly the Determinants of Outcome of Severe Mental Disorders (DOSMED) conducted in catchment areas in ten countries. In this project, 1,379 psychotic individuals aged 15-54 years were identified at the point of their first lifetime mental health service contact (including with traditional healers in developing countries) and...

What Practitioners Say It Does

Reflexology advocates believe that this approach can increase energy flow to the organs that correspond to the reflex points, and increase the vitality of those organs. By increasing the vitality of the internal organs, practitioners believe they can improve patients' health. They claim that reflexology can reduce stress and tension, improve circulation, eliminate toxins, and bring the body into a state of balance conducive to good health. These beliefs echo the vital-force concept that dominated the earliest ideas about health, illness, and physiological function. There are two linked beliefs on which reflexology is based. One is that reflex points exist on the foot, and that these reflex points can influence health in distant organ systems and parts of the body to which they are linked. The second is that the body contains an invisible life force, or subtle energy, similar to the concept of qi (chi) in Chinese medicine and acupuncture (Chapters 6 and 1), or prana in Ayurvedic or...

Faithless Religion and the New Personality of

In the main religions of the modern capitalistic world, God is becoming less paternalistic, less spiritually imperious, and less needy of our undivided attention. Rather than lording over us with rigid authoritarian commandments, God is being envisioned as a gifted broker who blesses in an unreliable way those who have faith enough in themselves to capitalize on earthly systems. When we ourselves are pleased, we know that God is also pleased. It is not necessary to make one's life into a prayer, as was done in premodern times by some of God's children. In becoming more spiritually adult, we no longer expect much loyalty or response from God nor does God any longer ask much of us.

The Psychological Challenge Of Religious Surrogacy

Instead of becoming completely nonspiritual or nonreligious, people continue to be motivated spiritually even when they cannot avail themselves of a traditional dominant religion. That is, spiritual needs do not cease to exist when culture no longer becomes a competent supplier of religion. The apparent absence of religion in some societies almost always coincides with the appearance of invisible religion, or what has also been Today's world is inhabited by an extraordinary number of paranormal and parapsychological beliefs and rituals. They are emerging at an extraordinarily fast rate, raising the question of their function. At this moment in the United States, UFOlogy is the religion growing most rapidly. UFO abductees have spiritually moving experiences, but there is also a great deal of variation in these experiences, and some abductees report sexual abuse at the hands of the aliens. Like all other types of new age religion, UFOlogy is uncoordinated and poorly patterned. The high...

The Sacralization And Ritualization Of Consumption

Western religion has been pervaded by consumer themes to the extent that some religious scholars now prefer to describe modern religion as a mode of consumption that has evolved to accommodate the realism of the political economy.26 As religion has absorbed the themes of consumer culture, it has found its way into the object world and begun to deliver a universe that can be understood in terms of value and profit. Consumer religion has unfolded against the background of a spiritually famished desiring self that is readily converted (in the religious sense) to messages containing the promise of infinite value. In this respect, religious enterprises with capitalistic infrastructures do not embark on a search for unknown or hidden realities nor do they seek to clarify imbalances of the inner self. Instead, they engender a rudimentary faith in abundance, and the value of immediate relations to the world of objects and information.27 An example of the way in which Christianity and big...

Alternative Therapies And Wound Management

Massage reflexology aromatherapy therapeutic touch One such review has been undertaken by Finch (1997), who appraised the therapy of therapeutic touch, healing by laying on of hands, in relation to wound healing. Its use in nursing was introduced in the USA in the 1970s. It is based on the principle that human beings are energy fields and illness is the result of an imbalance in the energy field. Therapeutic touch focuses on redirecting the energy to restore balance. Finch reviewed five studies of therapeutic touch and wound healing carried out on healthy volunteers by the same researcher. She concluded that therapeutic touch was unreliable and generally ineffective when used to treat wounds. However, it has been shown to be beneficial in treating anxiety (see Chapter 2).

Investigate holistic or alternative therapies andor bodywork

Many people find that adding a non traditional, holistic element to their more traditional therapy is an effective tool for sustaining recovery. Yoga, Pilates, and other systems of body movement dovetail with the expressive therapies discussed earlier that are usually part of a treatment-oriented environment. Massage enhances body awareness, too, and some forms of body and energy work, such as Cranio-sacral and Reiki, will frequently help a person release deeply-felt emotions. Even faith healers or psychics have been known to enhance the work done in more traditional therapies. Therapist and author, Thomas Moore, speaking about Spirituality and Psychology Healing Body, Soul, and World at the 19th Annual Cape Cod Summer Symposia Oune, 2002), discussed tarot cards as a therapy tool to help clients access their imaginations, tap into emotions, and plumb deeper levels of their personal stories en route to self-awareness.

Models of Intervention Hospice programs

Spiritually, it is important to identify, develop, or reaffirm sources of spiritual energy, and in doing so foster hope for some type of continued (though compromised) meaning in this life, and some type of existence after physical life has ended. Corr's (1991) approach is to assess a patient and those involved, determine areas of task work (based on the four dimensions of personhood), and design interventions from the assessment. His model emphasizes the need for professional caregivers of every discipline to enhance their understanding of their patients as unique individuals, to foster empowerment on the part of the patients, to emphasize participation (i.e., shared aspects of dying that require interpersonal communication and interactions with others), and to guide helping (i.e., professionals should not dictate treatment plans).

Psychoanalysis Medication or Both

Psychoanalysis is indicated for patients with adequate ego strengths who experience recurrent problems in relationships and or work that are related to neurotic conflict rather than to significant psychiatric illness. The analyst strives to avoid the typical medical role of authoritative healer in an effort to optimally maintain the patient's ego autonomy over the course of a long and intensive relationship. In traditional psychoanalytic practice, the use of medication (or any other form of symptom relief such education, advice, or support) has been considered a parameter, or a deviation, from standard analytic process necessary to maintain the therapeutic environment, and to be dispensed with as soon as it is possible to return to the analysis of transference (Eissler,

Shaw in The 20th Century

Shaw continued to write plays and prefaces, as well as other works of fiction and nonfiction, into his 90s. His Common Sense about the War (1914) and Everybody's Political What's What (1944) are critiques of society in general and Britain in particular. The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism (1928) echoed many of the feminist themes of his earlier plays. The novella The Adventures of the Black Girl in Her Search for God (1932) describes Shaw's creative evolution and the idea of the life force, or the energy of progress. According to Shaw, the life force was a metaphor for a universal will that each individual has and that strives to improve the human race. Shaw died on November 2, 1950, in his country home at Ayot St. Lawrence.

Dynamic Relationship

Absolute integration describes a singularity (e.g., unitive experiences) two transcendent poles of the spectrum of knowledge. For example, in cosmology, the cosmic energy flux (and therefore information) appears as absolute transcendence in a singularity (i.e., the source of immense gravitational, or integrative, forces within massive black holes) as well as 'dark energy' which is theoretically attributed to the potentially limitless expansion, and differentiation, of the universe. In either case, I 0 or i (here both 0 and i are described as informational empty sets, the difference being that 0 results from a theoretically infinite gravitational contraction of the universe while i results from the converse, an infinite anti-gravitational repulsion and expansion caused by 'dark energy'). Equation 1 applies only between these extremes (i.e., 0 T, I i) that is, as information approaches zero, transcendence approaches infinity.

Introduction to Polymer Nanocomposites

One important focus of self-assembly is the tailoring of interfacial interactions 3 that ultimately determine the equilibrium geometry and spacing of the building blocks 8 . Noncovalent interactions are required to provide molecules enough mobility to self-assemble into ordered suprastructures without the need for chemical reactions to happen 23,24 . Those interactions include hydrogen bonding, metal coordination, electrostatics, dipolar interactions, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the organization reorganization of the biological structures, such as the hybridization of DNA duplex, the formation of a-helix and -sheet peptide structures, and the control of protein folding. This self-assembly strategy has prompted the controlled fabrication of organized structures from synthetic functionalized molecules, colloids, and polymers (so-called supramolecules) 25 , where the final structures display additional functionalities in...

Erik Erikson AI Hallowell and George Devereux

The 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s were a time of flourishing union of psychoanalysis with anthropology. In anthropology, personal biographies of informants starting with early childhood became common (Simmons 1942). Dreams were a topic of interest (Von Grunebaum and Caillois 1966 Wallace 1958, 19591 Dorothy Eggan 1949, 1955, 19611 worked extensively with dreams of Hopi informants, analyzing them with an approach based on the analytic methods of Thomas French and Erika Fromm 119641. Analytic journals published articles on dreams in shamanic healing (Freeman 1967 Toffelmeier and Luomala 1936 .

Synchronicity in Cosmology

In 2006 Richard Tarnas noted that synchronicity throughout history has provided for those who listen, a dawning intuition with great emotional and personal import, especially spiritually. He said that such experiences carry with them a certain numinosity, a dynamic spiritual charge with transformative consequences, that are so powerful that people usually keep the insights hidden in order to avoid ridicule. Tarnas used the example of Petrarch climbing Mount Ventoux in 1336, and randomly reading a passage from St Augustine which directed him to pay attention to natural phenomena, an event that has been credited with the symbolic beginning of the Renaissance. Tarnas cautioned against the shadow side of the idea of meaningful coincidence, the exaggeration of the trivial to discover a self-inflated meaning, a narrowness of self-involvement that may signal selfishness and even psychoticism (p. 51).

Research Evidence to Date

Probably the most serious and thorough modern investigations of faith healing have been conducted by James Randi, author of the book, The Faith Healers. Randi has debunked television evangelists by exposing hidden microphones and other means of communication through which backstage conspirators provide information to the on-air healer. Similarly, he has shown that paralyzed people who magically rise from their wheelchairs after apparent successful faith healing actually are ambulatory individuals acting the part. Randi reports that the modern faith healers he studied are either sincere but misguided and unable to produce healing, or outright charlatans and quacks who rely on trickery to impress the frightened and gullible. Randi not only uncovers the tricks used by faith healers, but he also describes the logical fallacies that many use to make it difficult to disprove faith healing. Most illnesses, for example, run a natural course, at the end of which the patient's health returns....

What It Can Do for You

Unfortunately, the history of faith healing and healers seems to contain many more stories of charlatans fleecing the unwary than of true miracles. However, although it has never restored missing limbs and although it rarely dissipates serious physiological disease, faith and religious belief, possibly through the placebo effect, can produce important health benefits. These include the relief of pain and anxiety, and possibly the prolonging of life so that an individual lives until an important personal anniversary.

Health Care For Back Pain In The Us

Some 6 million Americans now make about 60 million visits to chiropractors each year. This has doubled over the last 15 years. There are also about 15 million visits to physical therapists. But recent surveys show there is even greater use of other alternative therapies, particularly massage, yoga, relaxation therapies, and energy healing.

Resolve to become an effective communicator

Count your blessings If you have the luxury of reading this book, you're already better off than perhaps 80 of the earth's population. You probably have a roof over your head, sufficient food, people you care about, and some who care about you. Life is difficult enough without filling yourself with negativity and wasting your life force on worry and stress. If you remember to count your blessings today and everyday, then you'll have the strength and focus to enjoy the challenges presented by difficult people.

Kiong C Ut X [Uspl Spq Uchl Chq C q 1346

When we compared TPSC with QMC simulations and with FLEX in Fig. 13.4 above, perhaps you noticed that at the Fermi surface, the frequency dependent spectral weight has two peaks instead of one. In addition, at zero frequency, it has a minimum instead of a maximum. That is called a pseudogap. A cartoon explanation 29 of this pseudogap is given in Fig. 13.5. At high temperature we start from a Fermi liquid, as illustrated in panel I. Now, suppose the ground state has long-range antiferromagnetic order as in panel III, in other words at a filling between half-filling and nc. In the mean-field approximation we have a gap and the Bogoliubov transformation from fermion creation-annihilation operators to quasiparticles has weight at both positive and negative energies. In two dimensions, because of the Mermin-Wagner theorem, as soon as we raise the temperature above zero, longrange order disappears, but the antiferromagnetic correlation length remains large so we obtain the pseudogap...

Patricia L Gerbarg and Richard P Brown

Sharon Sageman3 described her work with seven women in spiritually oriented group therapy. All of the participants had severe, chronic mental illness and histories of abuse. The group expressed interest in working with a yoga teacher. Dr. Sageman arranged for them to be taught a basic breathing practice for thirty minutes at three of their group meetings. They learned to do a resistance breathing called Ujjayi in Sanskrit, also known as Victory Breath or Ocean Breath. Resistance to airflow is created by a slight tightening of muscles at the back of the throat, producing a soft sound like the sound of the sea or the inside of a seashell. The women learned to breathe at about five breaths per minute. Combining slow breathing with airway resistance further stimulates the vagus nerves and the relaxing, soothing part of the autonomic nervous system. The result is a state of calm alertness.4 Dr. Sageman observed striking improvements in mood and interactiveness after the group did the...

Classifications of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fort Iii Osteotomy

Energy therapies The vertebral subluxation may be the result of any of the following causes trauma, toxins (infections, poisons), and autosuggestion (psychologic factors). Vertebral subluxation is treated with a chiropractic manipulation referred to as an adjustment. The chiropractic adjustment is a specific form of direct articular manipulation characterized by a dynamic, forceful highvelocity thrust of controlled amplitude. These adjustments may be administered by hand or instruments directed at specific articulations. It is believed that chiropractic adjustments energize the life force that connects the spine to all parts of the body to promote healing and restore health. Chiropractic has become one of the largest drug-free healing professions. According to a survey released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 20 of the adult population in the United States has used chiropractic at least once. Energy therapies, which involve the use of energy fields, are...

Accounting for Amniocentesis

Such genetical studies should be placed in a long philosophical and scientific genealogy that extends back to at least the Ancient Greeks. There, philosophers and healers speculated about the causes of generation, and the capacity of organisms to reproduce themselves. Influenced by the rediscovery of Hippocrates's materialism and Aristotle's concern with the fusion of form and matter, Early Modern natural philosophers attempted to resolve the debate between epigenicists and preformationists Did organisms develop progressively, from formless matter to fully formed entity, or were they present at Creation and at each of its iterations like little homunculi, already fully shaped Long before the modern science of genetics took disciplinary shape, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century concepts of inheritance were deeply rooted in the idea of estate or property transmission. As biology emerged as a field of study, inheritance was already freighted with a double meaning it indexed both the...

History of Public Health and Sanitation in the West before 1700

The public employment of physicians was another significant development in the history of public health before 1700. Even ancient Greece, where many physicians were itinerant healers forced to wander in search of patients, established political and economic centers and provided salaries and other privileges to individuals who would agree to minister to their populations (Nutton 1981). Yet wherever a settlement grew large enough to support ethnic, linguistic, or even economic diversity, it was more difficult to ensure a sufficient number of healers. It was the Greek tradition that was ultimately transmitted to western Europe. From as early as the fourth century B.C., the Greeks had established a network of salaried physicians throughout the Hellenistic world. The terms of their contracts to individual communities varied widely, but the arrangement assured healers of some measure of personal stability. Unlike physicians in the more monolithic Egyptian society, who were natives subject...

What Is Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Complementary Alternative Medicine

Historically, medical pluralism has long existed in the United States (Kaptchuk and Eisenberg, 2001a). Over the past few decades, alternative medicine has become a more recognized entity within conventional medicine. Because of the public's growing use of CAM, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) created an Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) in 1992, with the intention of bringing its scientific expertise to more adequately explore unconventional medical practices (NCCAM, 2000). Because of Americans' ongoing and increasing use of CAM, the OAM was expanded to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) in 1998, guided by the following mission statement (2000) We are dedicated to exploring complementary and alternative healing practices in the context of rigorous science, training researchers, and disseminating authoritative information to the public and professional communities. After a decade of work in the field, NCCAM has become a leading resource for...

Disease Against Which Vaccination Is Resorted Onlybduring Epidemics

Variolation was practiced for a long time, not by trained physicians but by folk healers. For example, Cotton Mather in Massachusetts first heard of it about 1706 from his African slave, who told him that smallpox and vario-lation were both common in Africa. Peasants in Scotland, Wales, Greece, the Middle East, and elsewhere were buying the smallpox long before the rich and wellborn learned of variolation. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, whose brother died of the disease, was herself attacked as an adult, losing her beauty, even her eyebrows. While in Constantinople, she learned about ingrafting the disease, which usually led to a mild infection and yet stout immunity. She had her son variolated in Constantinople in 1717, and her daughter in London in 1721.

Provide a brief description of the types of mindbody therapy that have been used to treat patients with LBP

T'ai chi consists of a series of linked, slow, and constant movements. Its origin dates back to seventeenth-century China. Special postures and graceful motion are assumed to achieve a balanced energy flow (chi) throughout the body. T'ai chi develops strength, flexibility, and conscious muscle relaxation 7. Therapeutic touch or energy therapy is based on modulating and balancing the flow of chi. The therapist's hands move over the patient's body (physical touch or noncontact touch), redirecting and rebalancing the energy field of the patient with back pain. The goal of energy therapy is to reduce pain and stress-related symptoms

Traditional Chinese Medicine

With more than 10 million people, the Asian and Pacific Islander group represents the third largest minority group in the United States. The Chinese approach to healing is a rich and complex tradition. It emphasizes the importance of promoting balance and harmony in body, mind, and spirit and has become the foundation for many other traditional medical systems. Chinese medicine had its origins more than 2500 years ago and is still in use to treat millions of people in China and throughout the world. As a result, to the traditional Chinese healers, allopathic medicine is new and experimental. The Chinese have used iron balls for health since the Ming Dynasty (1368 1644). The balls, originally solid, today are hollow with a sounding plate inside them. Each pair consists of one that produces a high tone and the other a low tone. The iron balls are believed to enhance the user's health and well-being. By moving the iron balls with the fingers, various acupuncture points on the hand are...

Electromagnetic Therapies

Electromagnetic therapy is called by many names bioelectricity, electronic devices, electromagnetism, biomagnetism, magnetobiology (in the former USSR), electromagnetic or magnetic field therapy, and magnetic healing. As science learned more about electricity, entrepreneurs created a variety of black boxes connected to electrical sources. These were promoted as energy-healing devices, or as vibrational medicine. Less than a century ago, advertisements touting electronic cure-alls were prevalent in U.S. newspapers and magazines.

A slightly different view of common factors

Despite the obvious importance of expectancy, no school incorporates it into its systematic thinking. It seems to be more of an embarrassment. Freud (1917) took pains to argue that psychoanalysis was more than suggestion. ESTs explicitly try to control for expectancies through placebo treatment groups or TAUs. The problem, we believe, is two-fold. First, suggestion and expectancy seem trivial at best and disingenuous at worst. After all, most psychologists believe that faith healing is a product of expectancy. They do not want to be associated with that and they want to believe that they do a great deal more than that.

World War Ii Through The 1970s The Psychoanalytic Era

Before turning to modern biological psychiatry, it is worth noting that the middle, psychoanalytic era, with its neglect of robust research agendas, allowed mere ideas, often endlessly debatable, too much influence on psychiatric thought. In a sense, this was also a magical fantasy era. Dramatic new somatic therapies, based on marginal research findings, flourished. Perhaps the Reichian concept of libidinal orgone energy and the resulting orgone box (to concentrate that energy ) could be taken as symbolic of this era Willhelm Reich (1897-1957), whose own mental stability was eventually questioned, was convicted of fraudulent claims and died during his incarceration in a federal penitentiary. Others, like Bruno Bettelheim, generated needless guilt with concepts such as refrigerator mothering, which allegedly was instrumental in causing early childhood autism. It took many years for that needless guilt trip to become an embarrassment to the discipline (e.g., Pollak, 1997).

Spirituality Religion as a Healing Pathway for Survivors of Sexual Violence

Knapik, Martsolf, and Draucker developed a theoretical framework to explain how survivors of sexual violence utilize spirituality to respond to the abuse on their path to recovery based on interviews with twenty-seven women and twenty-three men.18 The framework consists of the core category of the Being Delivered and categories of Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Journey, and Spiritual Transformation. Being Delivered captures the participants' experience of being set free or rescued from the aftermath of the sexual violence by a spiritual power. Spiritual Connection reflects the participants' description of a connection or attempt to connect with a higher power via activities such as prayer or worship. Having a strong spiritual connection laid the foundation for some participants to begin on a Spiritual Journey on which they are strengthened and supported develop a greater sense of awareness and insight from a divine perspective and or experience trials and tribulations from God that...

Islamic and Indian Medicine

Prophetic medicine can be viewed as a science that integrated medical knowledge derived from the hadiths, or sayings and traditions of Mohammed and his companions, and local medical customs, magical beliefs, incantations, charms with ideas and con cepts drawn from Greco-Islamic medicine. It was, in other words, an effort to incorporate Greek medical knowledge into an acceptable Islamic framework. The authors of prophetic medicine were generally not practicing physicians but ulama (specialists of Islamic theological and legal sciences), who worked out religiously correct compendia of medical lore. In recent years, many prophetic medical works have been printed and can be purchased in bookstores throughout the Islamic world. and other impure substances (Basham 1976). Most people, however, had no access to the formal or learned Ayurvedic medical tradition and relied on home remedies and consultation with local medical healers. With few exceptions, only the rulers, military leaders, and...

Mental Illness and Psychiatry Retrospect and Prospect

Was no clinical problem that could be said to lie outside the physician's grasp. But as the physiological and bacteriological terrain came into sharper focus, so too did those areas in which medicine was admittedly ignorant. Paradoxically, as our scientific knowledge becomes increasingly sure, leading to ever higher expectations, those problems that cannot be solved develop an increased capacity to threaten our faith in science. Functional or nonorganic disorders, whose explanation as well as cure remain outside the boundaries of regular medicine, thus become disturbances not only within an individual but within the system of medicine as well. It is psychiatry's intraprofessional obligation to deal with these problems, shoring up the faith that, although no precise medical answers yet exist, they are still medical problems - and not yet the business of the astrologer or faith healer. Ironically, psychiatry is despised by the rest of medicine for this lowly, but vital role.

Early Modern Europe to the Seventeenth Century

More to the point, religion, magic, and medicine in this eclectic age were viewed as overlapping - not incommensurate - domains. Loss of reason was attributed to any combination of natural illnesses, grievous misfortunes, evil spirits, and deeds so sinful as to incur God's direct wrath. Insanity thus became the proper business of astrologers as well as physicians, and of clergymen as well as lay adepts. Moreover, these roles often merged. A healer of sick souls might offer counseling to assuage a spiritual affliction in combination with a therapeutic regimen to restore a humoral balance. A course of physic might be accompanied by a magic spell and implemented according to the patient's horoscope. For the Renaissance doctor, an individual instance of madness was a thorny interpretative challenge, for its meaning might be located in bodily corruption, in devilry, or even in the signs of sainthood.

Disease Illness and Health

The terms disease and illness are often used interchangeably. Medical sociologists and cultural anthropologists, however, make a distinction. The word disease refers to a disorder in which there is a change from normal in the body's structure or function, involving one or more organs of the body. Illness is the subjective distress felt by the patient and by those close to the patient, rather than the actual state of ill health. The patient's culture often determines how the patient interprets, explains, responds to, and deals with a disease. It also influences when a patient will seek health-care decisions and from whom. Members of some cultures try to ''normalize'' their symptoms, maintaining that symptoms in a certain age group are not abnormal. Affected members might say that they have experienced the symptoms before and that therefore the symptoms are normal for them. Other cultures dictate immediate care even if symptoms are minimal. According to some cultures, to be ill is a...

The Cancer Counselling Center of Ohio

In the situation of life-threatening illness, anticipatory grief is compounded by uncertainty. At the Center, many clients have a disease which is potentially lethal. They face, as if this threat were not bad enough, the incursions and perhaps the worsening of bodily illness, the difficult treatments and their often debilitating side-effects, and the loss of many aspects of their customary daily life. The possibility of dying is just one facet of a much greater complex of issues. Treatment in these cases often calls for unique methods. We routinely use tools which can access the internal states - the subliminal message systems - that lie beneath the surface of conscious awareness. It is our belief that where denial, doubt, and ambivalence prevail, clearer messages can often be obtained from the 'inner self'. We begin with relaxation, brainwave biofeedback, or other calming techniques to create a disposition of openness. Then, mental imagery, searching for internal direction (i.e.,...

The Importance of Hope

Even when death is near, the patient can hope for a measure of happiness during the amount of time he or she has remaining. The physician can support the patient's hope for a good quality of life in the remaining time, for spiritual healing, and for a final phase of life that has integrity and dignity.

Shamanic Practices

Although herbal remedies and some other healing techniques have largely been replaced by Western medicine, shamanic rituals remain a vital part of tribal life for many Native American groups. With some variations across tribes, four predominant healing techniques are practiced by Native Americans purifying and purging the body, the use of herbs, involvement of shamanic healers and symbolic ritual. These four techniques are described below, with the understanding that modifications and embellishments occur from tribe to tribe. Purification or purging rituals, similar to the practices found in other early healing systems and in other forms of folk medicine, remain important aspects of Native American healing. A traditional Native American purging ritual occurs in the sweat lodge. Here, heated rocks are doused with water, producing copious amounts of steam and heat that cause profuse sweating in those seated around the rocks. The sweating is thought to purge and purify the body.

What It Is

Naturopathic medicine, positioned as a low-cost, more gentle alternative to conventional care, combines modern knowledge of the body and disease with a variety of healing methods not used in mainstream medicine. The naturo-pathic approach to disease includes the many natural methods geared to strengthen the body's own healing ability. Treatment avoids drugs and surgery. Although naturopaths are not M.D.s, they do perform minor surgical procedures. from that held by conventional medicine. Rather than relying on concepts such as the body types of Ayurvedic medicine or the vital life force concept of traditional Chinese medicine, naturopaths study conventional anatomy and other medical sciences. They use X rays, order laboratory tests, and apply physical examination techniques as do conventional physicians.


D D Palmer (Fig. 4.12) carried out the first chiropractic treatment in Iowa on September 18, 1895. Palmer was a magnetic healer, who knew the early medical literature well and the methods of the bone-setters. He was probably also acquainted with osteopathic techniques in neighboring Missouri. There this as a life force, expressed in the individual as innate intelligence that controls and coordinates bodily activity and influences health and illness. It is the fundamental ability of the body to heal itself. Vitalism is holistic and naturopathic. Holism integrates body, mind, and spirit. It considers that health depends on obeying certain natural laws and on lifestyle, and that deviation can lead to illness. The innate intelligence gives purpose, balance, and direction to all biologic function. The naturopathic approach is the opposite of orthodox or allopathic look to nature for the cure the healing power of nature recognize the patient's own capacity for self-healing mind, body, and...

Cultural Competency

Some cultural groups include other family members or healers in decision making. Being open and respectful, the patient is more likely to accept what the physician says. Ask questions to determine the situation. Are there others who will be included in the decision making for your medical care

Chinese Medicine

As for smallpox-quarantine measures, there is at least one instance on record. In 1645, when the Manchus had just conquered Peking, they decreed that all smallpox victims and their families be banished 40 li (about 3 miles) from the city wall. The policy was still in force in 1655 (Hopkins 1983 Leung 1987a). Yet, as noted above, these were exceptional instances, and it is difficult to understand the Chinese lack of interest in quarantine (Leung 1987a). Ethics, however, probably had something to do with it. Moralists like Zhu Xi of the twelfth century, for example, condemned the abandoning of one's relatives and friends who fell victim to contagious diseases. Rather, one should risk infection by remaining behind to care for the sick, and there existed some conviction that moral power thus manifested would somehow keep the epidemic spirit away (Huizhoufu zhi 1502). On the other hand, the concept that diseases were caused by broad environmental influences - ether or vital energy (qi),...

Linoleic Acid Assay

Sesuvium portulacastrum (sea purslane, Ficoidaceae) was collected in the northern, western, and central part of Zimbabwe to determine the chemical activity of the essential leaf oils, which showed besides an antibacterial and antifungal also a significant antioxidative activity (Magwa et al., 2006). Sea purslane is used by the traditional healers in Southern Africa to treat various infections and kidney problems. The secondary metabolites from this plant species have a great potential as substitutes for synthetic raw materials in food, perfumery, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Thus, the composition and the biological activities of the EO of this Ficoidaceae were studied. One of the major chemical compounds is 1,8-cineole (6.8 ). The antioxidative testing was carried out by a modified b-carotene bleaching test. The background of these test methods is that b -carotene is a yellow antioxidant, which becomes colorless when it encounters light or oxygen. With the attendance of...

Grief Counselling

Early sessions are marked by acute experiences of painful grief. Clients ask whether or not they will survive this experience and question if life will ever have meaning again. Pain is felt psychologically, spiritually, cognitively, emotionally, and physically. There is a feeling of total loss of control in one's life. Grief is experienced as an overwhelming assault. The middle sessions are characterized by relapses. Perspectives re-emerge that clients felt they had already addressed. They do not understand that the perspective might be the same, but the issues and aspects of it are different. The grief is chronic, nagging, and often relentless. Issues revolve around identity and role changes, and the need to create a new 'I'. Later sessions are times of reconstructing and reinvesting in meaningful life and new narratives. The experience has been integrated and there is energy and motivation to make new choices. Clients initiate these sessions describing their plans, goals, and new...

Later Sessions

A major part of these later sessions addresses the experience of letting go of former roles and identities and making new choices to initiate new life narratives. Reinvestment does not mean replacement. Simply stated, it is the willingness and the ability to integrate the past into an inner reality and to invest mental and emotional energy into the reconstruction of a meaningful life. Since grief is considered to be a cyclical process, it is possible for many of the earlier experiences to re-emerge, in much the same way as the perspectives do. Often holidays, anniversary dates, and other special events trigger emotions and create reversions back to earlier experiences. The perspectives will indicate a process of integration of the loss and signs of future growth. Philosophically, the bereaved find meaning and purpose again in life. They feel connected to others and a larger system beyond themselves. They are aware that life is not fair, but they can appreciate the goodness of it....


The practice of medicine is a social task in which patient and healer must respect each other's personal morality and moral agency. The vastly greater power (real or perceived) of the health-care provider and specifically of the physician puts the burden of this fiduciary relationship largely (but not solely) on the shoulders of the healthcare provider. While health-care providers cannot and act ethically impose their own personal morality on the patient neither can the patient ask physicians to violate their own personal morality. Physicians and other health-care providers cannot simply follow the dictates of their particular HMO, MCO or the rules promulgated by the government (and may, in fact, be faced with quite unpleasant choices) and blame the system. They carry a heavy responsibility in trying to resist dictates deemed harmful to their patient. Above all they carry not simply the responsibility of accommodating themselves or resisting a system someone else builds for them but...


Most ancient cultures developed a concept of cosmic and bodily energy flow as a means of explaining the world, the body's function, and the relationship between humans and the environment. In early China, this energy was viewed as a vital life force called qi. It was believed to flow throughout the body along energy pathways called meridians. Maintaining a smooth and balanced flow of energy, or qi, was perceived as necessary to health and well-being. Manipulating qi to maintain balance and health is known as qigong, which literally means energy work.


Refer to your opening comments on the perspectives of loss significant loss affects one philosophically, spiritually, psychologically, sociologically, and physically (see Chapter 1 for discussion on perspectives). Bereaved individuals do not understand the tremendous power of grief. They feel out of control, and many fear that they are going crazy. A 10-minute presentation to the group regarding these perspectives of grief is important and therapeutic. This information often provides the first ray of hope and reassurance of future resolution. Included in this presentation should be some reference to a model of grief. Models discussed in Chapter 1, especially the ones utilizing concepts of continuing bonds, narrative reconstruction, and dual processes, may be used.

In This Chapter

You'll discover that many of the techniques available can be done by you, the parents. Your acu-pro can guide and advise, but it's up to you to take action. These conditions can be frustrating to a parent who is already worn out, but the rewards of helping to heal your baby are endless. As you hold your child in one hand, use the other to turn the page and learn the power of your own healing hands.


Energy flow and bring about homeostasis (balance). Despite his area of expertise he was an otolaryngologist, or eye, ear, nose and throat specialist his system uses none of these body parts, but rather the foot. He used the foot as a map of the whole body, each part relating to a specific body area.

Art Therapy

Art therapists believe that everyone is an artist, or can be when left to create freely and without external constraints of judgment or criticism. The very process of creating a painting, sculpture, or any other type of art, including written art such as poetry or stories, can help develop self-awareness and self-esteem. The release of creative energy generates internal activity that helps produce physical, mental, and spiritual healing. For those who cannot themselves create, the opportunity to experience the art of others can produce similar benefits.

Light Therapy

However, many claims are made for light therapy as an alternative healing method for conditions other than seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In alternative light therapy, various types of light from different sources are prescribed inappropriately to treat many diagnoses. Types of light include full-spectrum or natural sunlight, bright-light therapy, UV light, colored-light therapy, and various laser therapies. Advocates claim they can treat many maladies, including bulimia, psoriasis, symptoms of AIDS, and even breast, rectal and colon cancers. These claims are false they do not even appear to be logical. Light therapy should never be used instead of mainstream treatment for these or any other medical illness. Examples of these therapies and their false claims are described below.

Beyond Psychology

Task of therapy as helping the client's steps toward life fully lived, not more interpretation. He challenged several of Freud's assumptions that bringing the unconscious into conscious awareness is curative, that the actual unconscious is made conscious (and not just an interpretation of it), and that emotional expression in therapy is nothing but a projection, a transference onto the therapist. Rank claimed that what is unconscious is the 'life force' itself, the dynamic spark that animates everyday existence. Rank's final message in Beyond Psychology, which was published posthumously, was that the full meaning of human experience is not graspable with our rational intellect, and that we need to allow for the irrational in life.

Biological Dentistry

This is based on the belief that biological energy flows throughout the body, but can become imbalanced or short-circuited. Biological dentists apply to restore that balance by injecting a local anesthetic around the tooth thought to correspond to a particular body organ. That is said to remove the block and restore energy flow. This idea is similar to the concepts behind Traditional Chinese Medicine and other ancient beliefs described in Part One.

Metabolic Therapies

Proponents of metabolic therapy take the position that they address the underlying cause of disease, which they say is a buildup of (unspecified) toxins. They fault mainstream medicine for treating only symptoms. Advocates believe that cancer and other illnesses stem from toxicity-induced disruption of the immune system, which creates an internal environment susceptible to the development of disease. The toxins are said to come from chemicals in food, water, and air pollutants. Eliminating the internal toxins is believed essential to rejuvenating the body's immune system, which in turn is thought to allow self-healing from cancer and other illnesses to occur.

Part Seven Overview

Crystal healing is a New Age version of the ancient belief that stones harbor magical healing energy. Stones of different colors are thought to produce particular results or attack specific ailments. Lovely and simple to use (you just hold them or place them on your body or around the room), they are the most whimsical of the external healing forces included in this section. Perhaps because they refract light in what originally must have been inexplicable ways, crystals were assumed to hold special energy. Ironically, quartz, a common crystal long imbued with imaginary curative powers, is now a source of power in the form of silicon dioxide chips, the energy-transmitting heart of computer technology. In a very different application of external energy for healing purposes, some advocates use their own energy to heal others. They claim to send their internal healing energy into the body of another by passing their hands several inches over that person in what is called therapeutic...


Shamans are religious leaders or priests believed by their community to have the ability to cure the sick through magical powers. Shamanic healing, which appeared in all early cultures throughout most of the world, displays characteristics of both religion and magic, as did all early efforts to deal with illness and other undesirable events. Other early cultures, including those on the North and South American continents, in Asia, India, Africa, the South Pacific and Australia, all had their own concepts of a shaman religious leader, healer, and seer. Shamans used rituals that included singing, dancing, chanting, drumming, art forms, and storytelling to heal the sick, promote success in hunting and food gathering, and to create a safer or better life for members of their tribe.


Writing has been used as a tool for self-healing by both amateur and professional writers for thousands of years. Ronald Kellogg observed that well-known writers often talk about constructing meaning. He quoted E. M. Forster who had one of his characters say How do I know what I think until I see what I say (1994 25).

Culture and Health

It is crucial for any health-care provider to have an appreciation for cross-cultural family values, language, norms, religion, and political ideology. An estimated 80 to 90 of all self-recognized episodes of illness are managed exclusively outside a formal health-care system. Traditional healers, mediums, self-help groups, and religious practitioners provide a substantial proportion of this health care. Traditional Healing Systems Traditional, or folk, healers still play a large role in medicine in industrialized societies. Each culture has its own healers spiritual healers, mediums, herbalists, shamans, fire doctors, medicine men, astrologists, occult healers, bone setters, lay midwives, and leg lengtheners are only a few. Meditation, prayer, massage, exercise, relaxation techniques, acupuncture, acupressure, hypnosis, imagery, therapeutic touch, martial arts, and herbs are important therapeutic modalities of many of these healers. Spiritual healing is widespread. Christian Science...

Seren B Christensen

Amphotericin Cancer Cell Membrane

Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania. The diseases vary from simple self-healing skin ulcers (cutaneous leishmaniasis), severe disfiguring of nose, throat, and mouth cavities (mucocutaneous leishmaniasis) to life-threatening infections (visceral leishmaniasis). Visceral leishmaniais can be fatal if untreated. Approximately 12 million humans are infected with leishmaniasis and it is estimated that 59,000 die each year. The parasites nourish in the macrophages. The life cycle is illustrated in Figure 21.2.

Waiting and Watching

So I was three months pregnant before I knew I was pregnant. Just figured it was change of life. The clinic kept saying no, and it's really the same signs, menopause and pregnancy, you just feel that lousy. So when they told me I was pregnant I thought about abortion. I mean, maybe I figured I was too old for this. But in my neighborhood, a lot of Caribbean women have babies a lot of them are late babies. So I got used to it. But the clinic doctor was freaked out. He sent me for genetic counseling. Counseling I thought counseling meant giving reassurance, helping someone accept and find their way. Wisdom, help, guidance, you know what I mean. This lady was a smart lady, but right away she started pulling out pictures of mongoloids. So I got huffy I didn't come here to look at pictures of mongoloids, I says to her. So she got huffy and told me it was about mongoloids, this counseling. So we got more and more huffy between us, and finally I left. Wasn't going to sit and listen to that...

Early Sessions

Describe this time as feeling like they are outside of their bodies, looking in. Others experience tremendous anxiety, to the point of panic. Spiritually, they ask why God has allowed this to happen to them and psychologically, they are 'searching for what has been lost'. This search reflects the fact that the psyche has not been able to accept the reality of the loss and tries to undo it by retrieving it. This often occurs by mentally replaying the event, looking for different endings dreaming of what has been lost or hearing and seeing the lost object in a crowd. Sociologically and culturally, during the early sessions, support systems or the lack of them will be identified, and influences such as gender and ethnicity will be most apparent. Lastly, physical perspectives often focus on psychosomatic complaints and difficulties with eating, sleeping, and overall daily functioning. These perspectives and their influence have been discussed in Chapters 1 and 2.


British School Osteopathy

The human framework is a machine, subject to the same mechanical principles and disturbed function as a steam engine. The cause of disease is dislocated bones, abnormal ligaments, and contracted muscles - especially in the back - that cause pressure on blood vessels and nerves, and also lead to ischemia and necrosis, in part due to a disturbance of the life force traveling along nerves. This dislocation was the original osteopathic lesion. The body is capable of self-regulation, self-healing, and health maintenance.

Haglunds disease

Footwear adjustment and a soft insole, such as a heel cup, with a slight heel lift, which reduces symptoms, can be appropriate. In certain cases temporary rest combined with alternative exercise can be necessary. It is completely safe to continue sports activities despite the discomfort. Prognosis is practically always good and the condition is self-healing. A large, protruding lump can be left on the calcaneus, which in isolated cases leads to later problems in connection with exercise and sport.

Massage Techniques

Massage is customarily defined as the manual manipulation of the soft tissues of the body for therapeutic purposes, using strokes that include gliding, kneading, pressing, tapping, and or vibrating (Tisserand, 1977 Price and Price, 1999). Massage therapists may also cause movement within the joints, apply heat or cold, use holding techniques, and or advise clients on exercises to improve muscle tone and range of motion. Some common massage techniques include Swedish massage, acupressure, craniosacral therapy, deep tissue massage, infant massage, lymph system massage, polarity therapy, reflexology, reiki, rolfing, shiatsu, and therapeutic touch.

Mind Body Medicine

Ocean Energy Pyramid Rq5

Figure 11-6 The Healing Foods Pyramid emphasizes healing foods, which are known to have healing benefits or essential nutrients plant-based choices, which create the base and may be accented by animal foods variety and balance of color, nutrients, and portions sizes a healthful environment and mindful eating to savor and focus on the food being eaten. Figure 11-6 The Healing Foods Pyramid emphasizes healing foods, which are known to have healing benefits or essential nutrients plant-based choices, which create the base and may be accented by animal foods variety and balance of color, nutrients, and portions sizes a healthful environment and mindful eating to savor and focus on the food being eaten.

Greece and Rome

Before the fifth century B.C., ancient Greece had physician-seers (iatromantis) who combined magical procedures and drug treatments, and wound healers deft at caring for battlefield trauma. Another group of practitioners were engaged in medical dietetics, a tradition that developed primarily in response to the needs of athletes. Ultimately, it encompassed not only questions regarding exercise, bathing, and relaxation, but the regulation of food and drink for all citizens. All of these traditions eventually merged around 500 B.C. into a techne iatriche, or healing science, that sought to define its own intellectual approach and methodology. For this purpose, the new medicine adopted a theoretical framework capable of explaining the phenomena of health and illness. The new techne was also heavily dependent on clinical observations from which careful inferences and generalizations were derived. The foremost representative of classical Greek medicine was Hippocrates, a prominent...


Within the larger society as well as within the profession, the relationship between and among healthcare professionals and their patients has rested on historical tradition. Patients seeking out healers have done so with the fundamental assumption that such healers will, above all else, be dedicated to their personal good, no matter what. Disagreements about the nature of the good, about who legitimately defines it, and about the means necessary for its attainment may exist. But as long as such relationships have endured, the central fact was never in doubt healthcare professionals, if they are to fulfill the social contract, must be dedicated to their patients' good. Trust validates this assumption. Although from time to time healthcare professionals have unscrupulously broken the implicit contract, have sought their own good, or have become the willing tools of the state5 (by participating in torture, executions, or experiments on non-volunteers or by practicing acute remunerative...

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