Identification of Sperm Oxidative Stress from Clinical History

Male Infertility Causes Mnemonics

The various causes of male infertility are outlined in Fig. 16.1, with the majority of these sources of sperm dysfunction being relatively easy to identify through history alone. The mnemonic Testicular is a helpful aide-memoire for recalling the underlying causes of male infertility, with sperm oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the majority of these male infertility pathologies. Exposure to oxins such as heavy metals through the manufacture of lead acid batteries or soldering fumes is...

Mechanism of Penile Erection

Shear Stress Erection

The main mediator of penile erection is nitric oxide (NO). NO is synthesized by two enzymes endothelial NO synthase (eNOS NOS3) and neuronal NO synthase (nNOS NOS1). nNOS-containing (nitrergic) nerve fibers course from the major pelvic ganglia (MPG) and terminate in the penis. eNOS localizes to the vascular and sinusoidal endothelium in the penis 4 . Sensory reflexogenic and psychogenic sexual stimulation activates nNOS, which initiates the erectile response. Sexual stimulation also neuronally...

Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

IOAT is a complex medical condition that affects approximately 30 of all infertile men and is the most common cause of male infertility 16, 17 . As a three-part disorder, low sperm concentration and motility and morphologically abnormal sperm characterize iOAT. Three classifications have been put into place to evaluate the severity of the disease (1) isolated astheno teratozoospermia (no alteration in sperm concentration) (2) moderate (sperm concentrations between < 20 x 106 mL and > 5 x...