Antioxidants in the Semen

In view of the male germ cell's high vulnerability to extrinsic and intrinsic ROS as well as lack of its own protection, spermatozoa have to receive protection against oxidative stress through relevant scavengers by the male and/or female reproductive tracts. Therefore, in the male, the testis and the accessory sex glands that are producing the seminal plasma have to provide substances and mechanisms for such protection. Indeed, seminal plasma is the biological fluid containing highest concentrations of antioxidant substances, even more than in any other physiological fluid. Basically, this antioxidative protection can be separated into two systems, interceptive and preventive. Among the scavenging antioxidants another distinction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems can be made [133].

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