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Cocaine promotes oxidation via involvement of the enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and xanthine oxidase [39] .

Daily intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg cocaine in rats shows a significant oxidative stress in basal conditions that may be related to their impaired learning ability [39], It may probably mean that changes in intensity of LPO processes observed during prenatal cocaine exposure are not directly linked to NO pathway activation.

Use of cocaine within 2 years of their first semen analysis has been found to be twice as common among men with sperm counts less than 20 x 106 mL [40]. Duration of cocaine use for 5 or more years was more common in men with low sperm motility and in those with low concentrations and a large proportion of abnormal forms. This association, together with the high prevalence of cocaine use in the general male population, suggests that cocaine may now be related to male subfertility and that history of use should be ascertained during diagnostic interviews.

Human spermatozoa acutely exposed to high concentrations of cocaine initially demonstrate a decrease in two motion kinematics: straight line velocity and linearity [41], However, overall, cocaine exposure has no significant effects on sperm motility and fertilizing capability.

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