Concluding Remarks

In spite of the quite often contradictory results from multiple clinical as well as experimental studies regarding cytokines and their effects on sperm structure and function, there is no doubt that various cytokines are involved in the regulation of gonads and sperm function. Cytokines detected in the seminal plasma seem to be mainly associated with the leukocytospermia. Moreover, the cytokines may play a crucial role in perpetuation of oxidative stress in semen, especially during the chronic inflammatory process. Due to the involvement of the mentioned bioactive factors deepening the harmful effects of oxidative stress to spermatozoa, they may be suspected to constitute an important link between inflammation and male infertility.

Acknowledgements: Financed by grants no. NN407283539, NR13006606.

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