Conclusion

Caspases, PARP, and OS are interlinked and play a role in the pathogenesis of male infertility. PARP expression has demonstrated a parallel relation with spermatozoa maturity and fertility potential. Decline in the level of PARP in the sperm of infertile men is associated with increased sperm DNA damage. PARP1 is involved in preventing damage to mature sperm, while PARP2 may play a role in OS which induces apoptosis. Caspase-dependent apoptosis is initiated in cytoplasmic droplet or in the mitochondria and impacts the nuclear integrity of sperm. cPARP is related to the activation of caspase 3. In addition, cPARP may be used as an apoptotic marker to discriminate between fertile from infertile men. The use of PARP inhibitor in vitro may be a useful treatment in condition-induced damage in sperm DNA.

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