Conclusion

The effect of heat stress on spermatogenesis has been investigated for several decades. As described in this chapter, the mode of heat stress is very different in in vitro experiments, animal experiments, and human studies. Therefore, close attention must be paid to recognize the cells exposed and the type of heat stress. Conventionally, in vitro and animal experiments do not fit the pathophysiology of human beings. Further investigation in this area will reveal more insights regarding the mechanisms that cause male infertility, new therapies, and germ cell culture for in vitro fertilization and in vitro spermatogenesis. Oxidative stress is involved in a variety of diseases that cause male infertility. There is increasing evidence supporting the effectiveness of antioxidants in treating male infertility. Further research in this area can help develop specific treatment for heat-induced oxidative stress as opposed to nonspecific antioxidant therapy.

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