Conclusions

- Greater understanding of the source(s) of aberrant ROS generation in mammalian spermatozoa is critical to the study of oxidative stress and male infertility.

- Increasing evidence suggests that the mitochondria are a major source of intracellular ROS in spermatozoa.

- Due to the high ROS generation in mitochondria, specific antioxidants in this organelle are critical. Due to the breadth and variety found, knockout mouse models have not generated significant data in the reproductive field.

- A number of intrinsic and external factors including FAs, apoptosis, environmental toxicants, cigarette smoking, and paternal age have all been related to mitochondria ROS generation. Exposure to multiple risk factors may further increase the likelihood of excessive mitochondria ROS generation.

- A clinical focus on mitochondria-targeted antioxidant therapies may provide a greater and more efficient alleviation of oxidative stress-related male infertility.

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