Historically, the human spermatozoon has been commonly defined as being of poor quality and declining [74] , in contrast to the majority of spermatozoa from other mammals. Together with the hypothesis of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), and its increasing prevalence in the recent past [75-77], the impacts of environmental factors, including those, whose effects are capable of inducing ROS in the male gamete, must be identified. Mobile phone usage is increasing worldwide at an astounding rate. The impressive development and use of mobile telecommunication services in the last decade have drastically increased the amount of RF-EMR exposure in our daily lives. With the ever-increasing uptake of this technology come concerns regarding the harmful effects of mobile phone exposure on human health, including reproductive systems. As part of its charter to protect public health, the World Health Organization in 1996 put into place the International EMF Project to assess the scientific evidence of possible health effects of EMR in the range of 30 Hz to 300 GHz [78] . Despite more than a decade of research in this field, the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation remain controversial and in a clinical sense inconclusive.

The challenges in uncovering the aetiology of male infertility are many. Nevertheless, in recent times, some progression to this question is being made. Recent evidence has indicated that RF-EMR can induce a state of oxidative stress in spermatozoa and that supplemental antioxidants can prevent RF-EMR-induced cellular damage. The ROS generated in these experiments is likely to originate from sperm cell mitochondria [79], or oxidases on the sperm plasma membrane.

It is also conceivable that the limited intrinsic antioxidants may be suppressed within spermatozoa, further escalating the potential for oxidative stress. Other hypotheses for the non-thermal mechanism of action such as protein mis-folding [80], activation and changes in expression [81] have also been implicated. Many high-quality studies from several groups around the world have brought us to close to a potential mechanism of action; however, the question remains, whether mobile phone use (or other environmental-born EMR) has a significant reproductive toxic effect. To date, there is no clear mechanism by which the non-ionising, mobile phone range EMR may affect biology. This is a key point to which much of the debate about the reported detrimental effects of EMR are based. With this unknown and the many conflicting reports in the literature over the past decade, this field remains controversial. It will be a challenge to answer this question because of the complex nature of the interaction of RF-EMR and the human body and the relatively subtle effects this type of radiation has on biological systems. This is an important time for the field, as biologist gain an understanding of the basic physics of mobile phone radiation, more appropriate and well-defined studies will be conducted which will eventually address the question, does mobile phone use pose a risk to reproduction and human health in general.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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