Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in the Germ Line

Monika Fraczek, Anna Czernikiewicz, and Maciej Kurpisz

Abstract Cytokines are important mediators of the immunologic response and involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in the male genital tract. The same cytokines that act as elements of immunomodulation for the male gonad appear in large concentrations in semen in a number of pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, spinal cord injury, varicocele, or genital tract infection/inflammation. The activated macrophages and neutrophils release reactive oxygen intermediates and secrete proinflammatory cytokines, both of which can affect spermatozoa through peroxidative processes of sperm membrane components and DNA. Elucidation of these mechanisms and their interactions can be critical to develop novel diagnostic tests and treatment of male genital tract infection/inflammation. This chapter covers the current evidence about a relationship among the cytokines, antioxidants, prooxidants, and semen parameters.

Keywords Cytokines • Oxidative stress • Germ line • Spermatogenesis • Steroidogenesis • Inflammatory conditions in the gonad • Semen inflammation

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

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