Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in the Germ Line

Monika Fraczek, Anna Czernikiewicz, and Maciej Kurpisz

Abstract Cytokines are important mediators of the immunologic response and involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in the male genital tract. The same cytokines that act as elements of immunomodulation for the male gonad appear in large concentrations in semen in a number of pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, spinal cord injury, varicocele, or genital tract infection/inflammation. The activated macrophages and neutrophils release reactive oxygen intermediates and secrete proinflammatory cytokines, both of which can affect spermatozoa through peroxidative processes of sperm membrane components and DNA. Elucidation of these mechanisms and their interactions can be critical to develop novel diagnostic tests and treatment of male genital tract infection/inflammation. This chapter covers the current evidence about a relationship among the cytokines, antioxidants, prooxidants, and semen parameters.

Keywords Cytokines • Oxidative stress • Germ line • Spermatogenesis • Steroidogenesis • Inflammatory conditions in the gonad • Semen inflammation

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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