Decreased Motility

There are several hypotheses showing how ROS and OS can lead to decreased sperm motility. One of these hypotheses postulates that hydrogen peroxide diffuses across the plasma membrane into the spermatozoa and affects enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase that are vital to normal spermatozoa function [10]. Another hypothesis suggests that ROS can lead to a decrease in protein phosphorylation and mitochondrial activity, consequently leading to sperm immobilization by reducing membrane fluidity [11]. Damage to the mitochondrial membrane by ROS can further potentiate the effects of OS on motility by causing a loss of intracellular ATP, leading to axonemal damage [12], Finally, it was also reported that oxidative stress impacts the sperm motility pattern and motion kinetics. While low levels of nitric oxide are needed for hyperac-tivation, excess levels of NO have been shown to inhibit motility by impairing sperm respiration [13].

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