In patients suffering from prostatitis, a negative association with sperm motility and morphology has repeatedly been shown because this condition is also associated with increased leukocyte infiltration in semen. [109, 110]. Accordingly, significantly increased seminal oxidative stress has been observed in patients with prostatitis categories NIH I, NIH II, NIH IIIA and NIH IV [111, 112]. However, even in prostatitis categories NIH III (chronic abacterial prostatitis) and NIH IIIB (non-inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome), elevated ROS concentrations accompanied by decreased anti-oxidant levels are present in the semen causing oxidative stress irrespective of the presence of leukocytes . This oxidative stress could be triggered by cytokines  and is thought to prompt acrosomal dysfunction in terms of significantly reduced inducibility of the acrosome reaction , possibly via destabilization of the sperm plasma membrane by LPO.
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