DNA Damage

DNA is usually protected from oxidative damage by its condensed form and the antioxidants present in the cytoplasm. After lipid peroxidation, DNA in both the mitochondria and nucleus becomes more susceptible to react with ROS. Sperm DNA damage has been associated with poor sperm parameters, infertility, and poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes [14]. DNA damage may present as fragmentation, deletions, frameshifts, point mutation, and DNA cross-links, as well as other genetic modifications and rearrangements. OS can also lead to single-strand DNA and double-strand DNA breaks [15] . If the amount of oxidative DNA damage is considerable, then apoptosis and embryo fragmentation may also occur.

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