DNA Damage

DNA is usually protected from oxidative damage by its condensed form and the antioxidants present in the cytoplasm. After lipid peroxidation, DNA in both the mitochondria and nucleus becomes more susceptible to react with ROS. Sperm DNA damage has been associated with poor sperm parameters, infertility, and poor in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes [14]. DNA damage may present as fragmentation, deletions, frameshifts, point mutation, and DNA cross-links, as well as other genetic modifications and rearrangements. OS can also lead to single-strand DNA and double-strand DNA breaks [15] . If the amount of oxidative DNA damage is considerable, then apoptosis and embryo fragmentation may also occur.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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