Effects of Leukocytes and Infections on Chromatin Packaging

The events of sperm chromatin condensation can be separated into two phases, a testicular phase where the exchange of histones by protamines takes place [114], and an epididymal where the final protamine structure is fixed by the formation of disulphide-bridges [115]. Considering that the latter process involves redox reactions it can be affected by an infection or inflammatory process. ROS produced by spermatozoa and seminal leukocytes correlate positively with poor chromatin condensation as determined by means of the chromomycin A3 stain, suggesting that the histone replacement by protamines and the occurrence of sperm DNA damage are separate processes [116].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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