Endogenous Antioxidants in the Penis in ED

Endothelial and smooth muscle cells of the rat penis contain antioxidants such as SOD3 [37,46,113,114], catalase [115], reduced glutathione [38, 65], and glutathione peroxidase [116] . Cavernosal tissue and blood from men contain vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, and glutathione [42, 117]. Controversial data were, however, obtained regarding the status of endogenous antioxidants in the diseased penis. Penis from aged animals exhibit decreased levels of reduced glutathione but increased cytoplasmic SOD expression [38]. although extracellular SOD protein and RNA expressions and SOD activity remain unchanged [37]. The diabetic penis exhibits decreased mRNA expression for catalase [118], while glutathione levels were reportedly decreased [47] or increased [42]. Similarly, while mRNA expression of SOD2 is decreased in the diabetic rat penis [118], SOD activity remains unchanged [46] . The corpus cavernosum of hypertensive rats exhibits decreased SOD activity [68-70]. while corpus cavernosal tissue of cholesterol-fed animals exhibits increased SOD activity without changes in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase [119]. These studies demonstrate that information regarding antioxidant status in the penis in association with ED is scarce and inconclusive.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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