Oxidative stress is a universal phenomenon of aerobic life, you cannot escape it, nor should you wish to [1].

In the early days of research in the field, oxygen radicals and other "reactive oxygen/ nitrogen species" (RONS) were universally thought of as deleterious molecules that must be eliminated at all costs by high levels of endogenous or exogenous antioxidants. Indeed, at high levels they are deleterious, e.g. to spermatozoa, other parts of the reproductive system and indeed to all cells and tissues. Sperm must be protected by their own antioxidants and by those in the bodily secretions surrounding them. Yet we now realise that RONS play key physiological roles, helping us to adapt to stress, defending us against infection and regulating physiological/pathological processes such as signal transduction and the intensity of inflammation [2-5].

The reproductive system is a beautiful example of all these principles. RONS at the correct level help to modulate uterine function, ovulation, the progress (or failure) of pregnancy and the behaviour of sperm, e.g. in response to inflammation in the surrounding tissues or even to electromagnetic radiation. Sperm generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria and by NADPH oxidase enzymes and these ROS may regulate sperm function (e.g. capacitation). Yet ROS can also damage sperm, e.g. during storage or handling procedures for in vitro fertilisation or during thermal stress. The highly polyunsaturated sperm lipids are a particular target.

This book "Studies on Men's Health and Fertility" is therefore extremely timely. Edited by three experts who have contributed enormously to the field, Ashok Agarwal, Juan Alvarez and Robert John Aitken, it examines all aspects of the roles of RONS in male fertility/infertility and semen quality; as well as their role in other conditions such as testicular torsion, variococele and erectile dysfunction. Each chapter is well written, carefully edited and appropriately referenced. I learned a great deal from reading this book, and I am sure that you the reader will do so as well. I recommend it strongly.

Singapore Barry Halliwell

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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