Future Research and Treatment Approaches

A predominant contributing factor that idiopathic male infertility has been shown to have is the imbalance between OS and the antioxidant-induced scavenging of ROS present in the semen [10, 82] . Numerous factors may negatively influence semen parameters, for example posttesticular damage in the epididymis, abnormal sper-matogenesis, environmental variables, or infection [18]. However, the presence of high concentrations of ROS can add to a damaging effect on the sperm parameters, such as morphology and motility [40], which are essential for normal spermatozoa functioning. By maintaining low concentrations of the free radicals in semen, the chances of successful fertilization can be considerably enhanced for a number of couples facing fertility challenges [36] .

Past studies have shown the negative influence that elevated concentrations of ROS may elicit on the fertilizing capabilities of male subjects through decreasing spermatozoa motility and DNA damage when it was demonstrated that 40-88% of these samples had markedly high levels of ROS [77].

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