Generation of ROS by Leukocytes

Despite the fact that spermatozoa are capable of producing ROS, even in small amounts, the most predominant source of ROS formation by phagocytosis is peroxidase-positive leukocytes, mainly polymorphonuclear (PMN) neutrophilic granulocytes, which are crucial in diagnosing MAGI as they are active in the inflammatory process [41, 49-51] . In comparison to the amount of ROS produced by spermatozoa at the point of capacitation, the production rate by leukocytes is 1,000 times greater [52]. Various biological arguments between research groups have been created in determining the exact level of leukocytes that produce concentrations of ROS which are harmful towards spermatozoal parameters. The general consensus is that irrelevant of the exact concentration, the mere presence of these WBC's has been shown to be associated with OS [3, 39]. Since the presence of ROS in a semen sample can be the result of either spermatozoa in a pathological condition or leukocyte infiltration following infection, it is important in a clinical sense to accurately establish the source of seminal ROS [34].

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