Genitourinary Tract Infection

Genitourinary tract infections may be caused by a number of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus faecalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum [36], Genitourinary tract infection may originate in the kidney, bladder, epididymis, prostate, or urethra, and includes diagnoses such as prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis, pyelonephritis, bacterial cystitis, and urethritis. These types of infections are associated with inflammation and increased leukocytes in the seminal fluid, which may lead to increased levels of ROS and OS [8],

High levels of ROS production by leukocytes occurs as a defense mechanism designed to kill microbes [35] , ROS generation may continue due to stimulation mediated by cytokines such as interleukin-6 and -8, which are associated with infection and inflammation [48]. Leukocytospermia and DNA damage have been found in patients with genitourinary tract infections [49]. Chronic infections may lead to increased damage over time. Patients with both varicocele and some type of genitourinary tract infection have been found to have higher levels of ROS than patients with just one of the conditions [44]. The most common method of treatment is with antibiotics such as tetracyclines, although antioxidant treatments involving carniti-nes have been also proven to be effective [50] .

In male accessory gland infection, there is a high prevalence of abnormal semen quality and infertility [51]. Infection of the epididymis can cause asthenozoo-spermia, while impairment of the seminal vesicles can lead to obstruction, decreased semen volumes and fructose levels [52]. Infection of the epididymis is also a source of obstructive azoospermia [2]. Infection of the prostate can cause semen hyperviscosity due to inefficient secretion of proteolytic enzymes and antigens [53], which can affect the sperm motility and progression through the female reproductive tract. Semen samples of men with an accessory gland infection have been shown to have lower concentrations of certain key antioxidants such as citric acid and zinc, which are involved in maintaining seminal pH levels as well as DNA condensation and chromatin stability [54-57].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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