Illumination

The detrimental effects of light on fertilized oocytes and embryos that were exposed to light when cultured in vitro have been discussed in many studies. Embryos developed in vitro are exposed to environmental stress factor such as fluctuation of temperature and pH and the presence of visible light, which all have a negative effect on embryo development [26]. The use of microscopic light during in vitro production (IVP) is a common stress factor which may compromise embryo development and viability [27], Visible light induces photodynamic stress and can cause oxidative damage to these lipids [28 ] which generate ROS and consequently damage the embryos.

The nonionizing irradiation of visible light (350-800 nm) passes through non-pigmented embryonic cells causing production of ROS, such as the hydroxyl radical, which are known to be toxic and/or mutagenic to mammalian cells [29]. In particular, exposure to microscopic light compromised development of two-cell rabbit and hamster embryos [ 30] . Reduced exposure to light or manipulating embryos in actinic light has been shown to be beneficial [19].

Visible light acts as an exogenous source of OS in that it promotes ROS production, causing cellular damage through the oxidation of DNA bases and DNA strand breaks.

The findings of a study by Beehler et al. implicated UV radiation in ROS-induced DNA base modifications [31].

Furthermore, Takenaka et al. [32] showed that smaller amounts of short-wavelength visible light are advantageous in ART as they expose oocytes and embryos to lower levels of OS than cool white light. These results suggest that minimizing the exposure of oocytes, zygotes, and embryos to visible light and near-UV light will serve to better mimic in vivo conditions, thereby yielding more successful ART outcomes [32] .

Therefore, transient exposure of embryos to light of X5 min in vitro may cause ROS production [ 33] . Nevertheless, smaller amount of short-wavelength visible light are advantageous in ART as they expose the oocytes and embryos to lower level of OS than the cool white light and will serve to better mimic in vivo conditions, thereby yielding more successful ART outcomes [32] .

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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