In Vivo and In Vitro Antioxidant Treatments

Oral antioxidant supplements may be used to counteract OS and treat male infertility. Studies have shown that antioxidants correlate with improvement in sperm parameters; however, in excess, these oral antioxidant supplements may have detrimental effects [83]. As an example, improvement in sperm motility and lower levels of ROS were attributed to vitamin E and selenium oral supplementation [84]. Other antioxidant supplementations that have been proven to be effective in reducing ROS levels include glutathione, l-carnitine, vitamin A, and ^-acetyl cysteine [39, 50].

Antioxidant treatments can be also added to culture media in vitro during sperm preparation techniques in order to improve in vitro sperm fertilization ability. Vitamin C supplementation alone and in conjunction with vitamin E has been shown to be effective both orally and in culture media [85, 86]. Media supplementation with vitamin C and urate can lead to protection of spermatozoa from DNA damage [87].

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