Intracellular Sources

In contrast, when considering endogenous influences in the context of the male reproductive system, the seminal fluid contains a broad variety of cellular cells which can be considered possible sources. These include epithelial and round cells, spermatozoa at varying stages of spermatogenesis, as well as leukocytes [3]. Taking this into account demonstrates that essentially all ejaculate cells are potential providers of ROS [34], with seminal leukocytes and abnormal or immature spermatozoa being the predominant contributors [29, 41]. Immature spermatozoa have been postulated as being responsible for oxidative damage to their mature counterparts during the seminal migration from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis [6]. Following an increase in the production of ROS by these two sources, the natural antioxidative capabilities are overwhelmed with the induction of OS [44].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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