Intracellular Sources

In contrast, when considering endogenous influences in the context of the male reproductive system, the seminal fluid contains a broad variety of cellular cells which can be considered possible sources. These include epithelial and round cells, spermatozoa at varying stages of spermatogenesis, as well as leukocytes [3]. Taking this into account demonstrates that essentially all ejaculate cells are potential providers of ROS [34], with seminal leukocytes and abnormal or immature spermatozoa being the predominant contributors [29, 41]. Immature spermatozoa have been postulated as being responsible for oxidative damage to their mature counterparts during the seminal migration from the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis [6]. Following an increase in the production of ROS by these two sources, the natural antioxidative capabilities are overwhelmed with the induction of OS [44].

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