The main functions of testis are spermato- and steroidogenesis. Spermatogenesis is hormonally controlled by pituitary gonadotropins: folliculotropic hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and locally produced—testosterone [1, 2]. A lot of evidence suggests that somatic cells of testis (the Sertoli, the Leydig, peritubular cells) in physiological conditions produce cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1,

M. Fraczek, PhD • A. Czernikiewicz, MSc • M. Kurpisz, MD, PhD (*)

Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Reproductive Biology and Stem Cells, Strzeszynska 32, 60-479 Poznan, Poland e-mail: [email protected]

A. Agarwal et al. (eds.), Studies on Men's Health and Fertility, Oxidative Stress 179

in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-776-7_9, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

IL-6, and nonprotein mediators of inflammation, e.g., nitric oxide (NO), which take part in the initiation of spermatogenesis and maturation of the semen [3-5].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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