The main functions of testis are spermato- and steroidogenesis. Spermatogenesis is hormonally controlled by pituitary gonadotropins: folliculotropic hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and locally produced—testosterone [1, 2]. A lot of evidence suggests that somatic cells of testis (the Sertoli, the Leydig, peritubular cells) in physiological conditions produce cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1,

M. Fraczek, PhD • A. Czernikiewicz, MSc • M. Kurpisz, MD, PhD (*)

Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Reproductive Biology and Stem Cells, Strzeszynska 32, 60-479 Poznan, Poland e-mail: [email protected]

A. Agarwal et al. (eds.), Studies on Men's Health and Fertility, Oxidative Stress 179

in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-776-7_9, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

IL-6, and nonprotein mediators of inflammation, e.g., nitric oxide (NO), which take part in the initiation of spermatogenesis and maturation of the semen [3-5].

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