Key Points

• Spermatozoa with damaged membranes found in infertile patients present with an increase in caspase activity.

• Nuclear and mitochondrial abnormalities induce caspase 3 activation during spermiogenesis.

• Higher levels of PARP homologues were detected in infertile men semen compared to fertile men.

• High levels of cPARP have been reported in infertile men.

• Calcium ions have an important role in the pathophysiology of oxidative stress and can play a role in the relationship between oxidative stress and PARP activity.

• Infertile male patients have higher levels of caspases and increased sperm DNA damage by ROS, which shows positive relationship between apoptosis and male factor infertility.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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