Key Points

• In the context of male infertility, OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis are linked together leading to decrease in the sperm fertilization potential.

• Several clinical conditions have been strongly associated with seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Clinical symptoms and signs and laboratory presentations could be used to identify infertile males who have seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis as a causative factor. In these cases, specific testing is warranted for the presence of seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Proper management of some clinical conditions will improve sperm parameters which are initially deteriorated due to OS, DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Several methods could be applied to decrease the occurrence of OS, DNA damage, and apoptosis in vitro.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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