Key Points

• In the context of male infertility, OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis are linked together leading to decrease in the sperm fertilization potential.

• Several clinical conditions have been strongly associated with seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Clinical symptoms and signs and laboratory presentations could be used to identify infertile males who have seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis as a causative factor. In these cases, specific testing is warranted for the presence of seminal OS, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Proper management of some clinical conditions will improve sperm parameters which are initially deteriorated due to OS, DNA damage, and apoptosis.

• Several methods could be applied to decrease the occurrence of OS, DNA damage, and apoptosis in vitro.

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