Key Points

• Cryopreservation damage to sperm is caused by osmotic/dehydration effects, induction of ROS, and intracellular ice formation at subzero temperatures.

• Superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide are the two most important ROS in spermatozoal response to cryopreservation.

• Intracellular water remains an unknown source or reservoir of ROS that are produced during various stages of the cryopreservation process.

• Antioxidant therapy may alleviate some, but not necessarily all, generation and scavenging of ROS.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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