Laboratory Presentations 2031 Leukocytospermia

Leukocytes are a normal constituent of the human seminal fluid. However, if the leukocyte concentration exceeds the normal values (1 x 106/mL), sperm dysfunction may be seen [101] . Higher leukocyte concentrations can be seen in ejaculates of men with varicocele, genitourinary tract infection, and those who heavily consume alcohol and smoke tobacco [102] . Male smokers diagnosed with infertility have an increased incidence of OS, which may be due to an increase in leukocyte concentrations by as much as 48% [103]. Sperm dysfunction due to the presence of leukocytes may be also seen at levels below 1 x 106/mL since activated leukocytes produce excessive amounts of ROS and therefore are the main cause of OS in the male genital tract [8].

Leukocytospermia has been correlated with abnormal sperm parameters which appear to be positively correlated with the leukocyte concentration [104]. Sperm DNA fragmentation has also been proven to correlate with leukocytopsermia [105]. Sperm DNA fragmentation occurs due to the presence of inflammatory cytokines leading to direct DNA structural abnormalities [106]. Alternatively, sperm DNA fragmentation may occur due to OS as documented by the increase in levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, which is seen in patients with leukocytospermia [106].

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