Leukocytes should only make up 5% of the round cell population in semen in normal males [34]. Leukocytospermia is defined as the presence of peroxidase-positive leukocytes in concentrations of greater than 1 x 106 per mL of semen. Increased leukocyte infiltration in semen is common in conditions that involve inflammation such as genitourinary tract infection. Leukocytes exhibit increased ROS production in an early defense mechanism to kill infecting bacteria 635]. Therefore, high amounts of seminal leukocytes may even be used to diagnose a genitourinary tract infection [36], However, leukocytospermia may be seen in situations unrelated to infection, such as smoking or heavy alcohol consumption [37].

Although ROS production by leukocytes is necessary for normal sperm function, leukocytes are considered to be one of the main sources of excessive ROS and OS in the male reproductive tract. Activated leukocytes have been shown to produce up to 100 times the amount of ROS produced by nonactivated leukocytes [38]. Leukocytes may also lead to oxidative damage in levels below the 1 x 106 per mL threshold for diagnosis of leukocytospermia [39] . Increased seminal leukocytes result in high levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage through ROS production. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antioxidants have been proven to be effective treatments for male patients with leukocytospermia [40], Sperm preparation may also be used to decrease the effects of ROS and OS on mature spermatozoa by separating leukocytes and immature sperm from the mature fraction [39],

A decline in sperm parameters has been correlated with leukocytospermia; a decrease that may be dependent on the concentration of leukocytes in the seminal fluid [41]. Parameters that were shown to be impaired by leukocytospermia include decreased motility, acrosomal damage, abnormal morphology [42, 43] , decreased sperm concentration [ 44] , decreased hyperactivation, sperm DNA damage, and impaired oocyte penetration [45]. However, other contradictory studies reported no significant relationship between leukocytospermia and decreased sperm function or parameters [46, 47] .

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