Mechanisms to Scavenge ROS in Sperm

Production of ROS by sperm must be balanced by scavenging systems for minimizing cell damage. Sperm-associated glutathione peroxidase is the primary scavenger for H2O2 and converts H2O2 to water. Catalase has been described in human semen to similarly break down H2O2 to water [85] . Consequently, H2O2 appears to be the primary ROS responsible for oxidative damage to spermatozoa in vitro, although superoxide anion is also a significant but short-lived stressor [36, 78, 86-88]. The NOX family of NOXs have been shown to be crucial components in a wide range of cells, including sperm that generate ROS (see excellent review by Bedard and Krause [60] ) . These proteins function by transferring electrons across lipid membranes using oxygen as electron acceptor. The product of this transfer is superoxide.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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