Methodology for Determination PARP Homologues in Human Sperm

12.3.6.1 Immunoblotting Analysis

One of the most important methods for detection of PARP homologues is immuno-blotting. At first, sperm proteins are extracted, denatured, and heated at 95°C for 5 min with Laemmli buffer [92] . Thereafter, equal amount of protein should be loaded on each well and separated on a 12% SDS-PAGE for protein profile verification. All protein could be electroblotted onto nitrocellulose membranes. The blotted membranes are incubated with nonfat milk and anti-PARP1 followed by anti-goat horseradish peroxidase-conjugated dilutions. Following incubation, primary and secondary antibodies are added. PARP immunopositive bands can be verified by Totallan 100 software [10].

12.3.6.2 Peptide Mass Fingerprinting

PARP1 antibodies are used in western blotted lanes in order to detect the PARP1 immunopositive bands. The corresponding bands of PARP1 immunopositive in the SDS-PAGE could be then excised and digested by Trypsin In-Gel Digest Kit. Later, the tryptic peptides can be detected by MALDI-Tof. Bioinformatics analyses may be used to identify the corresponding protein based on peptide mass fingerprinting [10],

12.3.6.3 Flowcytometry Staining for Cleaved PARP

cPARP can be detected by an FITC-conjugated anti-PARP cleavage site-specific antibody (CSSA) kit. Sperm pellets should be first washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and sperm pellets could be fixed in IC fix buffer and finally incubated with FITC-conjugated anti-PARP CSSA. Another wash cycle should be performed in IC Perm buffer and in PBS for FACS analysis. All fluorescence signals of labeled spermatozoa could be analyzed by the flow cytometer FACScan [87].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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