Nox Family of Nadph Oxidases

The NADPH oxidases are a family of enzymes that catalyze electron transfer from cytosolic NADPH to molecular oxygen to generate superoxide as its primary product. To date, seven NADPH oxidase isoforms have been identified in different mammalian cells and tissues [18]. The prototype gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase possesses cytosolic subunits (p47phox, p67phox, or homologues) and membrane-bound subunits (gp91phox and p22phox) , which form a functional enzyme complex upon activation [16].

NADPH oxidases are activated by diverse stimuli such as angiotensin II, proinflammatory cytokines, vasoconstrictors, hypoxia, growth factors, metabolic factors (hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, free fatty acids, advanced glycation end products [AGEs]), mechanical stimuli, and superoxide itself. The NADPH oxidase-derived ROS have been implicated in aging and a variety of diseases, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and SCD [19]. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests a role of NADPH oxidase in several ED states, as discussed later in this chapter.

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