Outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques

Seminal ROS levels correlate with success rates of intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and ICSI [97]. Since spermatozoa used in assisted reproductive techniques originate from an environment conducive to OS, they could be the source of introduction of high levels of ROS [98] . In support, embryo culture media showing higher levels of ROS have been correlated with low fertilization rate, decreased blastocyst and cleavage rate, and decreased embryo quality and pregnancy rates following assisted reproductive techniques [99] .

Ample data document the negative impact of sperm DNA fragmentation on the success rates and outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques, specifically the embryo development and pregnancy rates [100] . These negative effects are seen whenever the extent of sperm DNA damage exceeds the repairing capabilities of the oocyte [21].

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