Oxidative Stress and Female Fertility

ROS play crucial roles in the female reproduction; they may act as mediators in hormone signaling, oocyte maturation, ovarian steroidogenesis, ovulation, luteoly-sis, luteal maintenance in pregnancy, implantation, compaction, blastocyst development, germ cell function, and corpus luteum formation [135].

Oocytes and spermatozoa can also experience direct damage, which can lead to impaired fertilization due to an environment of OS in the peritoneal cavity.

Many events related to infertility may occur due to OS in the female reproductive tract, such as endometriosis, hydrosalpinx, polycystic ovarian disease, unexplained infertility, and recurrent pregnancy loss [129 ] . In addition, apoptosis may cause embryo fragmentation, implantation failure, abortion, or congenital abnormalities in offspring.

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