ROS play crucial roles in the female reproduction; they may act as mediators in hormone signaling, oocyte maturation, ovarian steroidogenesis, ovulation, luteoly-sis, luteal maintenance in pregnancy, implantation, compaction, blastocyst development, germ cell function, and corpus luteum formation .
Oocytes and spermatozoa can also experience direct damage, which can lead to impaired fertilization due to an environment of OS in the peritoneal cavity.
Many events related to infertility may occur due to OS in the female reproductive tract, such as endometriosis, hydrosalpinx, polycystic ovarian disease, unexplained infertility, and recurrent pregnancy loss [129 ] . In addition, apoptosis may cause embryo fragmentation, implantation failure, abortion, or congenital abnormalities in offspring.
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A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.