Oxidative Stress and Reactive Oxygen Species

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between oxidation and reduction towards the oxidative status [11], which can potentially result in cellular or genetic damage. This condition is triggered by so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are chemical intermediates deriving from oxygen, most of them having one or more unpaired electrons (radicals) causing electronic instability and therefore very short half-life times in the nanosecond (10-9 s) to millisecond range (10-3 s) with high reactivity of the molecules [12]. Practically, these radicals react at the site of generation. The most relevant examples of ROS in Andrology are the hydroxyl radical ('OH), superoxide anion (°O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). On the other hand, one has to distinguish between ROS, which can be radicals, but need not to be always (exception: H2O2), and radicals. Radicals are any form of molecule exhibiting one or more unpaired electrons.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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