Oxidative Stress and Sperm Capacitation and Acrosomal Reaction

Spermatozoal capacitation and acrosomal reaction are generally promoted by certain ROS such as H2O2, nitric oxide, and superoxide anion (O/-) [100, 107]. In human spermatozoa, NADPH-dependent ROS generation seems to regulate AR by tyrosine phosphorylation [108]. Aitken et al. [109] showed that capacitation of spermatozoa may thus occur by different ROS, specifically by H,O2 following an increase in cAMP, activation of protein kinase A, and downstream tyrosine kinase activation.

Moreover, many research groups reported in vitro induction of spermatozoa capac-itation by ROS, such as, superoxide anion (O/-), hydrogen peroxidase (H2O2), and nitric oxide NO [110, 111].

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