Oxidative Stress DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Male Infertility

Tamer M. Said, Constanze Fischer-Hammadeh, Mohammed Hamad, Khaled Refaat, and Mohamad Eid Hammadeh

Abstract Oxidative stress, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis are associated with male infertility as a cause and as a manifestation. Several clinical conditions and laboratory findings may be indicative of the presence of oxidative stress, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis. The use of standardized assays for the diagnosis of oxidative stress, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis should be limited to cases where these conditions are suspected. The identifications of the causative factor for infertility will lead to a specific and subsequently more successful treatment option.

In this chapter, we provide a description of the clinical conditions associated with oxidative stress, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis that lead to male infertility. The different signs and results of laboratory investigations will be provided to highlight manifestations of these conditions. We also describe the impact of oxida-tive stress, sperm DNA damage, and apoptosis on male fertility and the different approaches that could be used for diagnosis and prevention.

Keywords Oxidative stress • Apoptosis • Male infertility • Reactive oxygen species • Spermatozoa DNA damage • Apoptosis

Andrology Laboratory and Reproductive Tissue Bank, The Toronto Institute for Reproductive Medicine, 56 Aberfoyle Crescent, Toronto, ON, Canada M8X2W4

e-mail: [email protected]

C. Fischer-Hammadeh, MD • M. Eid Hammadeh, DVM, BSC, PhD Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Saarland, Homburg , Saarland , Germany

Department of Pharmacology and Bioscience , Petra University, Amman , Jordan K. Refaat, MD

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Al Azhar University, Assuit , Egypt

A. Agarwal et al. (eds.), Studies on Men's Health and Fertility, Oxidative Stress 433

in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice, DOI 10.1007/978-l-61779-776-7_20, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

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