PARP in Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

Jha et al. recently reported several isoforms of PARP such as PARP1, PARP2, and PARP9 in ejaculated spermatozoa. PARP is located near the acrosomal regions of the sperm head and higher amounts of PARP1, PARP2, and PARP9 were detected in fertile men semen compared to infertile men [10]. A decline in level of PARP in the sperm of infertile men was proposed due to increased sperm DNA damage. In addition, sperm maturity correlated with PARP since higher levels of PARP1, PARP2, and PARP9 were found in mature sperm. It is of interest that the localization of caspase enzymes (caspase-3, -8 and -1) is also in the postacrosomal part [86]. cPARP correlates with activated caspase 3 and therefore could be considered as a new apoptotic marker in ejaculated spermatozoa [87]. Aziz et al. demonstrated that sperm deformity index scores are associated with cPARP as an early markers of apoptosis [88] .

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