Potential Therapeutic Role of PARP in Male Infertility

As PARPs play an important role in cell death and apoptosis, they could be good candidates in therapeutic regimens. It was hypothesized that PARP inhibitor causes prevention of DNA repair of malignant cells following exposure to chemotherapy [89], In cancer patients, the antitumor properties of PARP can preserve fertility even after chemotherapy or radiotherapy [2]. Jha et al. proposed that PARP inhibition can protect sperm against chemically induced injury in vitro [10]. In a recent study by Chang et al., it was shown that the levels of PARP are higher in varicocele patients compared with normal controls [49]. Manipulation of PARP in testicular cancer and other conditions such as infections and inflammatory diseases could be a future therapeutic approach.

The role of PARP in male infertility could be advocated. In a study by Wang et al., men with idiopathic infertility showed a significant positive correlation between ROS levels and caspase-9 and caspase-3, which suggests possible DNA damage and subsequently PARP in these cases [90]. In men with azoospermia, the expression of PARP-1 (enzyme) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) (an indicator for PARP activity) as two markers has been localized in round and elongating sperma-tid. Also, PAR activity has been shown in all of the spermatocytes in maturation arrest patients at the spermatocyte level [91].

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