References

1. Stephan JP, Syed V, Jegou B. Regulation of Sertoli cell IL-1 and IL-6 production in vitro. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997;134:109-18.

2. Guazzone VA, Jacobo P, Theas MS, et al. Cytokines and chemokines in testicular inflammation: a brief review. Microsc Res Tech. 2009;72:620-8.

3. O'Bryan MK, Schlatt S, Phillips DJ, et al. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation compromises testicular function at multiple levels in vivo. Endocrinology. 2000;141: 238-46.

4. O'Bryan MK, Hedger MP. Inflammatory networks in the control of spermatogenesis: chronic inflammation in an immunologically privileged tissue? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;636: 92-114.

5. Hedger M, Klug J, Fröhlich S, et al. Regulatory cytokine expression and interstitial fluid formation in the normal and inflamed rat testis are under Leydig cell control. J Androl. 2005;26:379-86.

6. Fijak M, Bhushan S, Meinhardt A. Immunoprivileged sites: the testis. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;677:459-70.

7. Jacobo P, Guazzone VA, Theas MS, et al. Testicular autoimmunity. Autoimmun Rev. 2011;10:201-4.

8. Cheng CY, Mruk DD. Regulation of spermiogenesis, spermiation and blood-testis barrier dynamics: novel insights from studies on Eps8 and Arp3. Biochem J. 2011;435(3):553-62.

9. Cheng CY, Mruk DD. A local autocrine axis in the testes that regulates spermatogenesis. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2010;6:380-95.

10. Wong CH, Cheng CY. The blood-testis barrier: its biology, regulation and physiological role in spermatogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;7:263-96.

11. Su L, Mruk DD, et al. Drug transporters, the blood-testis barrier, and spermatogenesis. J Endocrinol. 2011;208(3):207-23.

12. Yan HH, Mruk DD, Lee WM, Cheng CY. Ectoplasmic specialization: a friend or a foe of spermatogenesis? Bioessays. 2007;29(1):36-48.

13. Mruk DD, Cheng CY. Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell interactions and their significance in germ cell movement in the seminiferous epithelium during spermatogenesis. Endocr Rev. 2004;25(5):747-806.

14. Xia W, Wong CH, et al. Disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adhesion function in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis can be limited to adherens junctions without affecting the blood-testis barrier integrity: an in vivo study using an androgen suppression model. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205(1):141-57.

15. Li MW, Mruk DD, et al. Cytokines and the junction restructuring events during spermatogen-esis in the testis: an emerging new concept of regulation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20(4):329-38.

16. Li MW, Mruk DD, et al. "Unlocking" the blood-testis barrier and the ectoplasmic specialization by cytokines during spermatogenesis: emerging targets for male contraception. Immunol Endocr Metab Agents Med Chem. 2008;8:20-7.

17. Siu MK, Wong CH, et al. Sertoli-germ cell anchoring junction dynamics in the testis are regulated by an interplay of lipid and protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 2005;280(26):25029-47.

18. Xia W, Mruk DD, et al. Cytokines and junction restructuring during spermatogenesis—a lesson to learn from the testis. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2005;16(4-5):469-93.

19. Meng J, Holdcraft RW, et al. Androgens regulate the permeability of the blood-testis barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005;102(46):16696-700.

20. Yan HH, Mruk DD, et al. Blood-testis barrier dynamics are regulated by testosterone and cytokines via their differential effects on the kinetics of protein endocytosis and recycling in Sertoli cells. FASEB J. 2008;22(6):1945-59.

21. Su L, Mruk DD, et al. Differential effects of testosterone and TGF-ß3 on endocytic vesicle-mediated protein trafficking events at the blood-testis barrier. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316(17):2945-60.

22. Cheng CY, Mruk DD. An intracellular trafficking pathway in the seminiferous epithelium regulating spermatogenesis: a biochemical and molecular perspective. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;44(5):245-63.

23. Yan HH, Mruk DD, et al. An autocrine axis in the testis that coordinates spermiation and blood-testis barrier restructuring during spermatogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(26):8950-5.

24. Cheng CY, Wong EW, et al. Regulation of spermatogenesis in the microenvironment of the seminiferous epithelium: new insights and advances. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315(1-2):49-56.

25. Bornstein R, Rutkowski H. Cytokines and steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;215(1-2): 135-41.

26. Guzmán C, Hernández-Bello R, et al. Regulation of steroidogenesis in reproductive, adrenal and neural tissues by cytokines. Open Neuroendocrinol J. 2010;3:161-9.

27. Cudicini C, Lejeune H, Gomez E, et al. Human Leydig cells and Sertoli cells are producers of interleukins-1 and -6. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:1426-33.

28. Hedger MP, Meinhardt A. Cytokines and the immune-testicular axis. J Reprod Immunol. 2003;58:1-26.

29. Rozwadowska N, Fiszer D, Kurpisz M. Function of the interleukin-1 gene system in immunomodulation, apoptosis and proliferation in the male gonad. Postepy Hig Med Dosw. 2005;59:56-67.

30. Hales DB, Diemer T, Hales KH. Role of cytokines in testicular function. Endocrine. 1999;10:201-17.

31. Khan SA, Schmidt K, Hallin P, et al. Human testis cytosol and ovarian follicular fluid contain high amounts of interleukin-1-like factor(s). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1998;58:221-30.

32. Stéphan JP, Syed V, Jégou B. Regulation of Sertoli cell IL-1 and IL-6 production in vitro. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1997;134:109-18.

33. Lysiak JJ. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 in the mammalian testis and their involvement in testicular torsion and autoimmune orchitis. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2004;2:9.

34. Lin T, Wang D, Nagpal ML, et al. Interleukin-1 inhibits cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 expression in primary cultures of Leydig cells. Endocrinology. 1991;129: 1305-11.

35. Kanzaki M, Morris PL. Growth hormone regulates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and steroidogenesis in Leydig cell progenitors. Endocrinology. 1999;140:1681-6.

36. Bourguiba S, Chater S, Delalande C, et al. Regulation of aromatase gene expression in purified germ cells of adult male rats: effects of transforming growth factor ß , tumor necrosis factor a, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:592-601.

37. O'Bryan MK, Gerdprasert O, Nikolic-Paterson DJ, et al. Cytokine profiles in the testes of rats treated with lipopolysaccharide reveal localized suppression of inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;288:1744-55.

38. Turner T, Lysiak J. Oxidative stress: a common factor in testicular dysfunction. J Androl. 2008;29:488-98.

39. Fujii J, Iuchi Y, Matsuki S, et al. Cooperative function of antioxidant and redox systems against oxidative stress in male reproductive tissues. Asian J Androl. 2003;5:231-42.

40. Lukyanenko YO, Chen JJ, Hutson JC. Production of 25-HC by testicular macrophages and its effects on Leydig cells. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:790-6.

41. Hales DB. Testicular macrophage modulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;57:3-18.

42. Thiemermann C, Szabo C, Peretti M, et al. Role of tumor necrosis factor in the induction of nitric oxide in a rat model of endotoxin. Br J Pharmacol. 1993;110:177-82.

43. Allen JA, Diemer T, Janus P, et al. Bacterialendotoxin lipopolysaccharide and reactive oxygen species inhibit Leydig cell steroidogenesis via perturbation of mitochondria. Endocrine. 2004;25:265-75.

44. Diemer T, Allen JA, Hales KH, et al. Reactive oxygen disrupts mitochondria in MA-10 tumor Leydig cells and inhibits steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and steroidogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2882-91.

45. Aly HA, Lightfoot DA, El-Shemy HA. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in adult rat Sertoli cells in vitro. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1266-72.

46. Kern S, Robertson SA, et al. Cytokine secretion by macrophages in the rat testis. Biol Reprod. 1995;53(6): 1407-16.

47. Fujii J, Iuchi Y, et al. Cooperative function of antioxidant and redox systems against oxidative stress in male reproductive tissues. Asian J Androl. 2003;5(3):231-42.

48. Maiorino M, Ursini F. Oxidative stress, spermatogenesis and fertility. Biol Chem. 2002;383:591-7.

49. Soder O, Sultana T, Jonsson C, et al. The interleukin-1 system in the testis. Andrologia. 2000;32:52-5.

50. Rozwadowska N, Fiszer D, Jedrzejczak P, et al. Interleukin-1 superfamily genes expression in normal or impaired human spermatogenesis. Genes Immun. 2007;8:100-7.

51. Maegawa M, Kamada M, Irahara M, et al. A repertoire of cytokines in human seminal plasma. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;54:33-42.

52. Politch JA, Tucker L, Bowman FP, et al. Concentrations and significance of cytokines and other immunologic factors in semen of healthy fertile men. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2928-35.

53. Huleihel M, Lunenfeld E, Levy A, et al. Distinct expression levels of cytokines and soluble cytokine receptors in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. Fertil Steril. 1996;66:135-9.

54. Matalliotakis I, Kiriakou D, Fragouli I, et al. Interleukin-6 in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. Arch Androl. 1998;41:43-50.

55. Twillie DA, Eisenberger MA, Carducci MA, et al. Interleukin-6: a candidate mediator of human prostate cancer morbidity. Urology. 1995;45:542-9.

56. Naz RK, Kaplan P. Increased levels of interleukin-6 in seminal plasma of infertile men. J Androl. 1994;15:220-7.

57. Depuydt CE, Bosmans E, Zalata AA, et al. The relation between reactive oxygen species and cytokines in andrological patients with or without male accessory gland infection. J Androl. 1996;17:699-707.

58. Friebe K, Bohring C, Skrzypek J, et al. Levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in seminal fluid of men attending an andrological clinic. Andrologia. 2003;35:126-9.

59. Huleihel M, Lunenfeld E, Horowitz S, et al. Involvement of serum and lipopolysaccharide in the production of interleukin-1- and interleukin-6-like molecules by human sperm cells. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2000;43:41-6.

60. Huleihel M, Lunenfeld E, Horowitz S, et al. Production of interleukin-1-like molecules by human sperm cells. Fertil Steril. 2000;73:1132-7.

61. Huleihel M, Lunenfeld E. Regulation of spermatogenesis by paracrine/autocrine testicular factors. Asian J Androl. 2004;6:259-68.

62. Ochsendorf RF. Infections in the male genital tract and reactive oxygen species. Hum Reprod Update. 1999;5:399-420.

63. Comhaire F, Bosmans E, Ombelet W, et al. Cytokines in semen of normal men and of patients with andrological diseases. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1994;31:99-103.

64. Matalliotakis I, Kyriakou D, Fragouli Y, et al. Determination of interleukin-11 in seminal plasma and elevated IL-11 in seminal plasma of infertile patients with urogenital infection. Arch Androl. 1998;41:177-83.

65. Papadimas J, Goulis DG, Sotiriades A, et al. Interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in normal/infertile men. Arch Androl. 2002;48:107-13.

66. Paradisi R, Capelli M, Mandini M, et al. Interleukin-2 in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. Arch Androl. 1995;35:35-41.

67. Gruschwitz MS, Brezinschek R, Brezinschek HP. Cytokine levels in the seminal plasma of infertile males. J Androl. 1996;17:158-63.

68. Paradisi R, Capelli M, Mandini M, et al. Increased levels of interferon-gamma in seminal plasma of infertile men. Andrologia. 1996;28:157-61.

69. Paradisi R, Mancini R, Bellavia E, et al. T-helper 2 type cytokine and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1997;38:94-9.

70. Dousset B, Hussenet F, Daudin M, et al. Seminal cytokine concentrations (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, sR IL-2, sR IL-6), semen parameters and blood hormonal status in male infertility. Hum Reprod. 1997;12:1476-9.

71. Matalliotakis IM, Cakmak H, Fragouli Y, et al. Increased IL-18 levels in seminal plasma of infertile men with genital tract infections. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2006;55:428-33.

72. Eggert-Kruse W, Boit R, Rohr G, et al. Relationship of seminal plasma interleukin (IL) -8 and IL-6 with semen quality. Hum Reprod. 2001;16:517-28.

73. Kocak I, Yenisey C, Dundar M, et al. Relationship between seminal plasma interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels with semen parameters in fertile and infertile men. Urol Res. 2002;30:263-7.

74. Furuya Y, Akashi T, Fuse H. Soluble Fas and interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in seminal plasma of infertile men. Arch Androl. 2003;49:449-52.

75. Paulis G, Conti E, Voliani S, et al. Evaluation of the cytokines in genital secretions of patients with chronic prostatitis. Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2003;75:179-86.

76. Sanocka D, Jedrzejczak P, Szumala-Kakol A, et al. Male genital tract inflammation: the role of selected interleukins in regulation of pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymatic substances in seminal plasma. J Androl. 2003;24:448-55.

77. Kopa Z, Wenzel J, Papp GK, et al. Role of granulocyte elastase and interleukin-6 in the diagnosis of male genital tract inflammation. Andrologia. 2005;37:188-94.

78. Bezold G, Politch JA, Kiviat NB, et al. Prevalence of sexually transmissible pathogens in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:1087-97.

79. Hill JA, Haimovici F, Politch JA, et al. Effects of soluble products of activated lymphocytes and macrophages (lymphokines and monokines) on human sperm motion parameters. Fertil Steril. 1987;47:460-5.

Eisermann J, Register KB, Strickler RC, et al. The effect of tumor necrosis factor on human sperm motility in vitro. J Androl. 1989;10:270-4.

Hill JA, Cohen J, Anderson DJ. The effects of lymphokines and monokines on human sperm fertilizing ability in the zona-free hamster egg penetration test. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160:1154-9.

Fedder J, Ellerman-Eriksen S. Effect of cytokines on sperm motility and ionophore-stimulated acrosome reaction. Arch Androl. 1995;35:173-85.

Naz RK, Evans L. Presence and modulation of interleukin-12 in seminal plasma of fertile and infertile men. J Androl. 1998;19:302-7.

Feldmann M, Saklatvala J. Proinflammatory cytokines. In: Oppenheim JJ, Feldman M, editors. Cytokine reference. New York: Academic; 2001. p. 291-305.

Sanocka D, Fraczek M, Jedrzejczak P, et al. Male genital tract infection: an influence of leukocytes and bacteria on semen. J Reprod Immunol. 2004;62:111-24.

Hussenet F, Dousset B, Cordonnier JL, et al. Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 2 in normal and infected human seminal fluid. Hum Reprod. 1993;8:409-11. Estrada LS, Champion HC, Wang R, et al. Effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on human sperm motility, viability and motion parameters. Int J Androl. 1997;20:237-42.

Fraczek M, Sanocka D, Kamieniczna M, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines as an intermediate factor enhancing lipid sperm membrane peroxidation in in vitro conditions. J Androl. 2008;29:85-92.

Motrich RD, Maccioni M, Molina R, et al. Reduced semen quality in chronic prostatitis patients that have cellular autoimmune response to prostate antigens. Hum Reprod. 2005;20:2567-72.

Theas MS, Rival C, Jarazo-Dietrich S, et al. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha released by testicu-lar macrophages induces apoptosis of germ cells in autoimmune orchitis. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:1865-72.

Basu S, Aballa TC, Ferrell SM, et al. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations are elevated in seminal plasma of men with spinal cord injuries. J Androl. 2004;25:250-4. Nallella KP, Allamaneni SS, Pasqualotto FF, et al. Relationship of interleukin-6 with semen characteristics and oxidative stress in patients with varicocele. Urology. 2004;64:1010-3. Martínez-Prado E, Camejo Bermúdez MI. Expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-10, HSP-60, anti-HSP-60 antibodies, and anti-sperm antibodies, in semen of men with leukocytes and/ or bacteria. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63:233-43.

Kokab A, Akhondi MM, Sadeghi MR, et al. Raised inflammatory markers in semen from men with asymptomatic chlamydial infection. J Androl. 2010;31:114-20. Eggert-Kruse W, Kiefer I, Beck C, et al. Role for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta) determination in seminal plasma during infertility investigation. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:810-23.

Omu AE, Al-Qattan F, Al-Abdul-Hadi FM, et al. Seminal immune response in infertile men with leukocytospermia: effect on antioxidant activity. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1999;86:195-2002.

Lee CY, Man-Fan Wan J. Vitamin E supplementation improves cell-mediated immunity and oxidative stress of Asian men and women. J Nutr. 2000;130:2932-7.

Aitken RJ, Baker MA, De Iuliis GN, et al. New insights into sperm physiology and pathology. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;198:99-115.

Wang A, Fanning L, Anderson DJ, et al. Generation of reactive oxygen species by leukocytes and sperm following exposure to urogenital tract infection. Arch Androl. 1997;39:11-7. Comhaire FH, Mahmoud AM, Depuydt CE, et al. Mechanisms and effects of male genital tract infection on sperm quality and fertilizing potential: the andrologist's viewpoint. Hum Reprod Update. 1999;5:393-8.

Wolff H, Anderson DJ. Immunohistologic characterization and quantitation of leukocyte subpopulations in human semen. Fertil Steril. 1988;49:497-504.

Wolff H. The biologic significance of white blood cells in semen. Fertil Steril. 1995;63:1143-57.

103. Kovalski N, de Lamirande E, Gagnon C. Reactive oxygen species generated by human neutrophils inhibit sperm motility: protective effect of seminal plasma and scavengers. Fertil Steril. 1992;58:809-16.

104. Shimoya K, Matsuzaki N, Tsutsui T, et al. Detection of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in seminal plasma and elevated IL-8 in seminal plasma of infertile patients with leukospermia. Fertil Steril. 1993;59:885-8.

105. Rajasekaran M, Hellstrom WJ, Naz RK, et al. Oxidative stress and interleukins in seminal plasma during leukocytospermia. Fertil Steril. 1995;64:166-71.

106. Liu J, Wang YX, Wu YL, et al. Measurement of the reactive oxygen species and cytokines in the seminal plasma of leukocytospermic patients. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2003;9:103-5.

107. Jedrzejczak P, Fraczek M, Szumala-Kakol A, et al. Consequences of semen inflammation and lipid peroxidation on fertilization capacity of spermatozoa in in vitro conditions. Int J Androl. 2005;28:275-83.

108. Alexander RB, Ponniah S, Hasday J, et al. Elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the semen of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Urology. 1998;52:744-9.

109. Naz RK, Evans L, Armstrong JS, et al. Decreased levels of interleukin-12 are not correlated with leukocyte concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in semen of infertile men. Arch Androl. 1998;41:91-6.

110. Aitken RJ, Fisher H. Reactive oxygen species generation and human spermatozoa: the balance of benefit and risk. Bioessays. 1994;16:259-67.

111. Buch JP, Kolon TF, Maulik N, et al. Cytokines stimulate lipid membrane peroxidation of human sperm. Fertil Steril. 1994;62:186-8.

112. DeForge LE, Preston AM, Takeuchi E, et al. Regulation of interleukin 8 gene expression by oxidant stress. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:25568-76.

113. Kikumori T, Kambe F, Nagaya T, et al. Activation of transcriptionally active nuclear factor-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its inhibition by antioxidants in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells. Endocrinology. 1998;139:1715-22.

114. Boulares AH, Giardina C, Inan MS, et al. Acetaminophen inhibits NF-kappaB activation by interfering with the oxidant signal in murine Hepa 1-6 cells. Toxicol Sci. 2000;55:370-5.

115. Das UN. Interaction(s) between essential fatty acids, eicosanoids, cytokines, growth factors and free radicals: relevance to new therapeutic strategies in rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen vascular diseases. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1991;44:201-10.

116. Barrett EG, Johnston C, Oberdörster G, et al. Silica-induced chemokine expression in alveolar type II cells is mediated by TNF-alpha-induced oxidant stress. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:L979-88.

117. Seo JY, Kim H, Seo JT, et al. Oxidative stress induced cytokine production in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells: effects of small-molecule antioxidants. Pharmacology. 2002; 64:63-70.

118. Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska U, Mroczko B, Siemi tkowski A, et al. The importance of interleukin 18, glutathione peroxidase, and selenium concentration changes in acute pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2004;49:642-50.

119. Hennig B, Meerarani P, Toborek M, et al. Antioxidant-like properties of zinc in activated endothelial cells. J Am Coll Nutr. 1999;18:152-8.

120. Karube-Harada A, Sugino N, Kashida S, et al. Induction of manganese superoxide dismutase by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in human endometrial stromal cells. Mol Hum Reprod. 2001;7:1065-72.

121. Isoherranen K, Peltola V, Laurikainen L, et al. Regulation of copper/zinc and manganese dismutase by UVB irradiation, oxidative stress and cytokines. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1997;40:288-93.

122. Omu AE, Al-Qattan F, Al-Abdul-Hadi FM, et al. Seminal immune response in infertile men with leukocytospermia: effect on antioxidant activity. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1999;86:195-202.

Pannekoek Y, Trum JW, Bleker OP, et al. Cytokine concentrations in seminal plasma from subfertile men are not indicative of the presence of ureaplasma urealyticum or mycoplasma hominis in the lower genital tract. J Med Microbiol. 2000;49:697-700. Matalliotakis I, Arici A, Goumenou A, et al. Distinct expression pattern of cytokines in semen of men with genital infection and oligo-terato-asthenozoospermia. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2002;48:170-5.

Fraczek M, Kurpisz M. Inflammatory mediators exert toxic effects of oxidative stress on human spermatozoa. J Androl. 2007;28:325-33.

Sharma RK, Pasqualotto FF, Nelson DR, et al. The reactive oxygen species-total antioxidant capacity score is a new measure of oxidative stress to predict male infertility. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:2801-7.

Agarwal A, Saleh RA, Bedaiwy MA. Role of reactive oxygen species in the pathophysiology of human reproduction. Fertil Steril. 2003;79:829-43.

Alvarez JG, Touchstone JC, Blasco L, et al. Spontaneous lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in human spermatozoa. J Androl. 1987;8:338-48. Rao B, Soufir JC, Martin M, et al. Lipid peroxidation in human spermatozoa as related to midpiece abnormalities and motility. Gamete Res. 1989;24:127-34.

Aitken RJ, Harkiss D, Buckingham DW. Analysis of lipid peroxidation mechanisms in human spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 1993;35:302-15.

Engel S, Schreiner T, Petzoldt R. Lipid peroxidation in human spermatozoa and maintenance of progressive sperm motility. Andrologia. 1999;31:17-22.

Fraczek M, Szkutnik D, Sanocka D, et al. Peroxidation components of sperm lipid membranes in male infertility. Ginekol Pol. 2001;72:73-9.

Zalata AA, Christophe AB, Depuydt CE, et al. White blood cells cause oxidative damage to the fatty acid composition of phospholipids of human spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 1998;21:154-62.

Fraczek M, Sanocka D, Kurpisz M. Interaction between leucocytes and human spermatozoa influencing reactive oxygen intermediates release. Int J Androl. 2004;27:69-75. Fraczek M, Szumala-Kakol A, Jedrzejczak P, et al. Bacteria trigger oxygen radical release and sperm lipid peroxidation in in vitro model of semen inflammation. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:1076-85.

Camejo MI, Segnini A, Proverbio F. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in seminal plasma of infertile men, and lipid peroxidation of their sperm. Arch Androl. 2001;47:97-101.

Martinez P, Proverbio F, Camejo MI. Sperm lipid peroxidation and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:102-7.

Zalata AA, Hafez T, Comhaire F. Evaluation of the role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:1444-51.

Aitken RJ, Krausz C, Buckingham D. Relationship between biochemical markers for residual sperm cytoplasm, reactive oxygen species generation, and the presence of leukocytes and precursor germ cells in human sperm suspensions. Mol Reprod Dev. 1994;39:268-79. Huszar G, Vigue L. Correlation between the rate of lipid peroxidation and cellular maturity as measured by creatine kinase activity in human spermatozoa. J Androl. 1994;15:71-7. Hughes M, Lewis SE, McKelvey-Martin VJ, et al. A comparison of baseline and induced DNA damage in human spermatozoa from fertile and infertile men, using a modified comet assay. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2:613-9.

Baccetti B, Collodel G, Piomboni P. Apoptosis in human ejaculated sperm cells (notulae seminologicae 9). J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1996;28:587-96.

Lopes S, Sun JG, Jurisicova A, et al. Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation is increased in poor-quality semen samples and correlates with failed fertilization in intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertil Steril. 1998;69:528-32.

Aitken RJ, Baker MA. Oxidative stress, sperm survival and fertility control. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006;250:66-9.

Aitken RJ, Krausz C. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and the Y chromosome. Reproduction. 2001;122:497-506.

146. Wang X, Sharma RK, Sikka SC, et al. Oxidative stress is associated with increased apoptosis leading to spermatozoa DNA damage in patients with male factor infertility. Fertil Steril. 2003;80:531-5.

147. Agarwal A, Said TM. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in male infertility: a clinical approach. BJU Int. 2005;95:503-7.

148. Oosterhuis GJ, Mulder AB, Kalsbeek-Batenburg E, et al. Measuring apoptosis in human spermatozoa: a biological assay for semen quality? Fertil Steril. 2000;74:245-50.

149. Said T, Agarwal A, Grunewald S, et al. Selection of nonapoptotic spermatozoa as a new tool for enhancing assisted reproduction outcomes: an in vitro model. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:530-7.

150. Grunewald S, Said TM, Paasch U, et al. Relationship between sperm apoptosis signalling and oocyte penetration capacity. Int J Androl. 2008;31:325-30.

151. Dinarello CA. Interleukin-18, a proinflammatory cytokine. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2000;11: 483-6.

152. Chen G, Goeddel DV. TNF-R1 signaling: a beautiful pathway. Science. 2002;296:1634-5.

153. Riccioli A, Salvati L, D'Alessio A, et al. The Fas system in the seminiferous epithelium and its possible extra-testicular role. Andrologia. 2003;35:64-70.

154. Salguero FJ, Sánchez-Cordón PJ, Núñez A, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines induce lymphocyte apoptosis in acute African swine fever infection. J Comp Pathol. 2005;132:289-302.

155. Mariño E, Cardier JE. Differential effect of IL-18 on endothelial cell apoptosis mediated by TNF-alpha and Fas (CD95). Cytokine. 2003;22:142-8.

156. Li MW, Mruk DD, Lee WM, et al. Cytokines and junction restructuring events during sper-matogenesis in the testis: an emerging concept of regulation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2009;20:329-38.

157. Barroso G, Morshedi M, Oehninger S. Analysis of DNA fragmentation, plasma membrane translocation of phosphatidylserine and oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod. 2000;15:1338-44.

158. Ollero M, Gil-Guzman E, Lopez MC, et al. Characterization of subsets of human spermatozoa at different stages of maturation: implications in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Hum Reprod. 2001;16:1912-21.

159. Lampiao F, du Plessis SS. TNF-alpha and IL-6 affect human sperm function by elevating nitric oxide production. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17:628-31.

160. Said TM, Agarwal A, Falcone T, et al. Infliximab may reverse the toxic effects induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha in human spermatozoa: an in vitro model. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1665-73.

161. Perdichizzi A, Nicoletti F, La Vignera S, et al. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on human sperm motility and apoptosis. J Clin Immunol. 2007;27:152-62.

162. Allam JP, Fronhoffs F, Fathy A, et al. High percentage of apoptotic spermatozoa in ejaculates from men with chronic genital tract inflammation. Andrologia. 2008;40:329-34.

163. Haidl G, Allam JP, Schuppe HC. Chronic epididymitis: impact on semen parameters and therapeutic options. Andrologia. 2008;40:92-6.

164. Penna G, Mondaini N, Amuchastegui S, et al. Seminal plasma cytokines and chemokines in prostate inflammation: interleukin 8 as a predictive biomarker in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Eur Urol. 2007;51:524-33.

165. Matalliotakis I, Goumenou A, Fragouli Y, et al. Soluble IL-6 receptor levels in the seminal plasma of infertile patients with accessory gland infection. Arch Androl. 2000;44:237-42.

166. Krause W, Bohring C, Gueth A, et al. Cellular and biochemical markers in semen indicating male accessory gland inflammation. Andrologia. 2003;35:279-82.

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment