Reproductive Sytems Defense Mechanisms

In examining the negative effects of high concentrations of ROS and the resultant OS, it must be considered that a degree of protection is provided to the spermatozoa by antioxidant defense mechanisms [44, 75]. Due to the proven relationship existing between increased incidents of infertility and inept antioxidant functioning in the seminal plasma [48, 76], determining the concentration of antioxidants may allow for the assessment of the fertility capabilities [31] . The properties of antioxidants allow for varying degrees of protection in the seminal plasma by acting as scavengers and creating a defense system against OS by removing the extracellular free radicals [3, 32]. This is due to the aforementioned fact that all ejaculates contain forms of cellular elements which can protect the spermatozoa from free radical toxicity [49]. In assessing the antioxidative capabilities of a semen sample, the previously explained TAC (Total Antioxidant Capacity) score is utilized. In determining the TAC score of a semen sample, two measurement techniques can be performed: a colorimetric assay and enhanced chemiluminescence, which quantifies TAC levels according to a set equation [31].

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