Sources of ROS

Morphologically defective spermatozoa and leukocytes found in semen are the primary causes of ROS production [11]. Several studies have shown that human spermatozoa can produce ROS, especially those with an excess of cytoplasm, also known as cytoplasmic droplets [12-15] . ROS production due to excess cytoplasm occurs due to the cytosolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD). Spermatozoa may generate ROS in two ways: first, through the NADPH-oxidase system found in the sperm plasma membrane, and secondly, through the NADH-dependent oxidoreductase in mitochondria [ 16]. Peroxidase-positive leukocytes, which are derived from the prostate and seminal vesicles, are also major contributors to ROS production [16-19]. Activation of leukocytes, stemming from inflammation and infection, can lead to ROS production as a result of increased NADPH production [3, 20]. Leukocytospermia (>1 x 106 WBC/mL of semen) causes sperm damage by ROS production, and removal of seminal plasma during sperm preparation for assisted production can further deprive the sperm of important nutritional support (antioxidants) and further cause sperm damage through ROS production [17, 18].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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