Sperm Morphology

Caspase-mediated apoptosis and increased OS have a positive relationship with increased sperm damage and abnormal sperm morphology [3]. There is also a higher incidence of abnormal sperm morphology in conditions related to OS [8]. DNA damage and ROS production has also been found to correlate with abnormal head morphology and cytoplasmic retention in immature sperm, but not in mature sperm [4]. This may be a result of OS affecting the regulation of spermiogenesis, the final stage of spermatogenesis where immature spermatids develop into mature spermatozoa [4]. Morphologically abnormal and immature sperm can lead to even higher levels of ROS production during sperm migration, and consequently lead to OS-related damage in mature sperm [4]. Abnormal morphology related to OS is not limited to immature spermatids and can extend to mature spermatozoa [14].

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