Sperm Morphology

Caspase-mediated apoptosis and increased OS have a positive relationship with increased sperm damage and abnormal sperm morphology [3]. There is also a higher incidence of abnormal sperm morphology in conditions related to OS [8]. DNA damage and ROS production has also been found to correlate with abnormal head morphology and cytoplasmic retention in immature sperm, but not in mature sperm [4]. This may be a result of OS affecting the regulation of spermiogenesis, the final stage of spermatogenesis where immature spermatids develop into mature spermatozoa [4]. Morphologically abnormal and immature sperm can lead to even higher levels of ROS production during sperm migration, and consequently lead to OS-related damage in mature sperm [4]. Abnormal morphology related to OS is not limited to immature spermatids and can extend to mature spermatozoa [14].

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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